Unit 2-3 Test
Terms in this set (59)
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possession, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
1867 - a group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors.
How did Westward Expansion influence the lives of Native Americans?
Destruction of native way of life and loss of tribal identity
Confinement to reservations
Thomas Edison & Lewis Latimer
perfected incandescent light bulb - carbon filament
Alexander Graham Bell
How did the United States change as it shifted from an agrarian to an industrial society?
How did organized labor influence business operations and public policy?
Advocated for safer working conditions, better pay and shorter hours
Community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants.
settlement house founded by Jane Addams
The growth of cities
The growth of industry
Social Gospel Movement
A 19th century reform movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty
movement dedicated to achieving women's right to vote
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Direct Election of Senators
Gave women the right to vote
progressive reformer; is best known for founding Hull House in Chicago.
Muckraker who described the awful living conditions of poor people in the tenements of New York City in "How the other half lives"; led to many social reforms.
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
The process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there.
Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil.
Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Supreme Court case (1896) Legalized segregation under the Constitution with the concept of "separate but equal."
Plessy v Ferguson
US immigration station on an island in New York.
Angel Island is located in San Francisco Bay and immigrants passed through it. The immigrants were mostly of Asian decent.
Political party organizations that run cities and are often associated with corruption and undemocratic practices. The most notorious example was New York's Tammany Hall
What problems needed to be addressed in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th
-Segregation and discrimination
What were the causes of the labor movement in the late 19th and early
overworked employees; unsafe working conditions; unequal treatment based on
gender, nationality, etc;
What were the consequences of the labor movement in the late 19th and early
- legislation re: working hours & employment safety; anti-trust legislation
used to bust strikes
American federation of labor
Alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; focus was bread-and butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply.
Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson
Booker T Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Head of the Tuskegee Institute
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
a person working to destroy monopolies and trusts
Complete control of a product or business by one person or group
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly).
"Hands off" The idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for the gap between social classes (rich and the poor)
What factors contributed to the immense industrial boom of the early 1900s
Wealth of natural resources, government support for business and a growing urban population.
What industry led industrialization
Sherman Antitrust Act
a law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained trade
What was an important pull factor that drew European immigrants to the United States
availability of farm land
What was a weapon used by labor unions when negotiations with business owners failed?
What innovation did Henry Ford use to mass-produce the automobile
the assembly line
what were negative aspects of industrialization in the work place?
work was dangerous and repetitive
What were some goals of labor unions?
-shorter work hours
-better working conditions
What President had a 'Square Deal' policy
What group of people were required to go through inspection at Ellis Island?
Steerage (3rd class)
What movement inspired many Americans to work for progressive reforms?
The social gospel movement
what is a result of immigration on cities
-Increase in tenements
-corrupt political bosses
What is one reason why John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J.P Morgan were sometimes called Robber Barons?
-Made risky investments
-Used ruthless business tactics
-Stole money from the federal government
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