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What is another word for Shock
Describes a state of collapse and failure of the cardiovascular system
what are some reasons that shock can occur
-sever allergic reaction
-motor vehicle crash
the circulation of an adequate amount of blood to meet the cells' current needs.
The body is perfused via the
carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle through the body and back to the right atrium
Poor perfusion creates
. If oxygenated blood is not properly circulated, --------may occur.
a passive process in which molecules move from an area with a higher concentration of molecules to an area of lower concentration.
Oxygen molecules move from the alveoli into
Carbon dioxide moves out of the blood into
Whereas the majority of oxygen is carried to the tissues attached to hemoglobin, carbon dioxide can be transported in the blood from tissues back to the lungs in three ways:
a. Dissolved in the plasma
b. Combined with water in the form of bicarbonate
c. Attached to hemoglobin
Shock is an unseen life threat caused by
To protect vital organs, the body directs blood flow from organs that are more tolerant of low flow such as
skin and intestines
to organs that cannot tolerate low blood flow (such as
3 parts of the cardiovascular system
-set of pipes
3 parts of the perfusion triangle
the pressure of blood within the vessels at any moment in time
peak arterial pressure
pressure in the arteries while the heart rests between heartbeats
a pulse pressure less than ____ may be seen in patients with shock
Blood flow through the capillary beds is regulated by
shock can result from
-acute allergic reactions
cardiogenic shock is caused by
inadequate function of the heart
a major effect of cardiogenic shock is
back up of blood into the lungs
resting buildup of pulmonary fluid
the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in body tissues, causing swelling
pulmonary edema leads to
impaired respiration, which may be manifested by:
An increased respiratory rate
Abnormal lung sounds
the volume of blood that the heart can pump per minute, and it is dependent upon several factors
obstructive shock is caused by
a mechanical obstruction that prevents an adequate volume of blood from filling the heart chambers
3 most common types of obstructive shock
Collection of fluid between the pericardial sac and the myocardium (pericardial effusion) becomes large enough to prevent ventricles from filling with blood
cardiac tampenade is caused by
blunt or penetrating trauma
: the presence of jugular vein distention, muffled heart sounds, and a narrowing pulse pressure where the systolic and diastolic blood pressures start to merge.
tension pneumothorax is caused by
damage to lung tissue
A blood clot that blocks the flow of blood through pulmonary vessels
what can result from a massive pulmonary embolism
-Can result in complete backup of blood in the right ventricle
-Leads to catastrophic obstructive shock and complete pump failure
Results from widespread dilation of small arterioles, small venules, or both
Occurs as a result of severe infections in which toxins are generated by bacteria or by infected body tissues.
what is lost during septic shock
neurogenic shock is the result of
usually the result of high spinal cord injury
causes of neurogenic shock
Pressure on the spinal cord
Muscles in the blood vessel walls are cut off from the nerve impulses that cause them to contract
Occurs when a person reacts violently to a substance to which he or she has been sensitized
becoming sensitive to a substance that did not initially cause a reaction
four categories of anaphylactic shock
Injections (tetanus antitoxin, penicillin)
Stings (wasps, bees, hornets, ants)
Ingestion (fish, shellfish, nuts, eggs, medication)
Inhalation (dust, pollen, mold)
Caused by a sudden reaction of the nervous system
psychogenic shock produces temporary
generalized vascular dillation
physcogenic shock results in
. Syncope occurs when
blood pools in the dilated vessels, reducing the blood supply to the brain.
Result of an inadequate amount of fluid or volume in the circulatory system
what can cause or aggrevate hyporvelemic shock
Dehydration, the loss of water or fluid from body tissues
is an abnormally low number of red blood cells.
occurs because blood is unable to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the tissues.
: early stage when the body can still compensate for blood loss
late stage when blood pressure is falling
may be the last measureable factor to change in shock
what should you do when you recognize shock
signs of cardiogenic shock
-Low blood pressure
-Weak, irregular pulse
-Cyanosis about lips/underneath fingernails
what is the priority for cardiac tamponade
increasing cardiac output
using a needle to withdraw blood
what should you give to patients in anaphylactic shock
how to treat hypovelemic shock
control external bleeding and keep the patient warm
The term "shock" is MOST accurately defined as:
A)a decreased supply of oxygen to the brain.
B)cardiovascular collapse leading to inadequate perfusion.
C)decreased circulation of blood within the venous circulation.
D)decreased function of the respiratory system leading to hypoxia.
Anaphylactic shock is typically associated with:
D)a severe headache.
Signs of compensated shock include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A)restlessness or anxiety.
B)pale, cool, clammy skin.
C)a feeling of impending doom.
D)weak or absent peripheral pulses.
When treating a trauma patient who is in shock, LOWEST priority should be given to:
D)notifying the hospital.
Potential causes of cardiogenic shock include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A)inadequate heart function.
B)disease of muscle tissue.
C)severe bacterial infection.
D)impaired electrical system.
A 60-year-old woman presents with a
BP of 80/60 mm Hg, a pulse rate of
110 beats/min, mottled skin, and a temperature of 103.9°F. She is MOST likely experiencing:
C)profound heart failure.
D)a severe viral infection.
A patient with neurogenic shock would be LEAST likely to present with:
A 20-year-old man was kicked numerous times in the abdomen during an assault. His abdomen is rigid and tender, his heart rate is 120 beats/min, and his respirations are 30 breaths/min. You should treat this patient for:
A)a lacerated liver.
B)a ruptured spleen.
A 33-year-old woman presents with a generalized rash, facial swelling, and hypotension approximately 10 minutes after being stung by a hornet. Her BP is 70/50 mm Hg and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. In addition to high-flow oxygen, this patient is in MOST immediate need of:
All of the following are potential causes of impaired tissue perfusion, EXCEPT:
A)increased number of red blood cells.
C)low fluid volume.
D)poor vessel function.
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