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Lifespan Motor Development
Terms in this set (170)
multidimensional and embedded
human development is ______ & ______
-identify typical growth and development
-diagnose atypical development
-provide developmentally appropriate instruction
-develop "goodness of fit" between the individuals' characteristics and program development/characteristics
knowledge of motor development enables us to:
motor control, motor learning, motor development, sport psychology
what are the four disciplines of motor behavior?
the neurophysiological factors which affect human movement
dynamic systems theory
schmidt's schema theory
what are the two theories associated with motor control?
study of nerve conduction rate, muscle innervation in fine motor tasks like golf, limb positioning are examples of
motor control is mostly _________based, it has ________ and _________ applications
the processes involved in acquiring and perfecting motor skills
information processing theory
what theory is associated with motor learning?
examples are types of practice schedules, feedback and influence on performance, motivation and performance
motor learning has both ______ and ______ ________ settings
the psychological factors which involve sports performance or exercise adherence
ex) motivation, anxiety, attribution theory, mental imagery and practice, self-efficacy/self-concept
the scholarly directions committee (1974) defines this as "changes in motor development which reflect the interaction of the maturing organism and it's environment"
predictive data on motor skills
understand movement responses by manipulation underlying process variables
Clark and Whitall define this as "changes in motor behavior across the lifespan" and "changes in motor behavior over the lifespan and the processes which underlie these changes and the factors that affect them"
precursor period, maturational period, normative/descriptive period, process-oriented period
what are the four periods of motor development?
-focus on descriptive observations of movement patterns and learning
-Tiedemann studied his son and described common sequences of moving and transitional periods from reflexes to voluntary action
-Darwin infant sketch
-more interested in cognitive development but MD benefited from studies
-maturation the main focus
-biological influences most significant
-environment minimal effect
-Gesell - infancy and human growth (process)
-McGraw - critical periods - process oriented
-Bayley - developed a scale of MD from 0-3 yrs
-Wild - 1st study of developmental movement patterns
-beginning of development of MD in PE, emergence of discipline
-standardized testing of children and development of norms for motor performance, growth, etc
-focus on gender comparisons
-description of "what is" rather than "why it is"
-Halverson - longitudinal study and interaction of environment
-Espenschade - lifespan movement product
-Rarick, Seefledt, Roberton - movement sequences (stages)
process oriented period
-study processes underlying development, not just describe it
-emergence of Dynamical systems theory: motor outcome is a function of all factors working cooperatively together
-analysis of: organism, task, and environment
-use of information processing theory
-not only "what" but more importantly "why"
-focus on individual variation
-lifespan phases of motor development model
-progression of motor proficiency skill levels
-mountain of motor development
what are three models of motor development?
competence in FMS are necessary in order to be able to engage in sports and games. children must break through the proficiency barrier
-FMS are the "base camp" to the mount of motor development that allow. each child to travel up the mountain on their own path
explain climbing the motor development mountain
motor drives cognitive development and cognitive development drives motor development
how are cognitive and motor development closely connected?
-sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
what are the four major stages of cognitive development, according to Jean Piaget?
adjusting to the demands of the environment
assimilation and accommodation
what are the two facets of adaptation?
process by which children attempt to interpret new experiences based upon their present interpretation of the world
adjustments or modifications in the thinking process which will become a part of a child's new cognitive repetoire
sensorimotor - birth to 2 yrs
preoperational - 2 to 7 yrs
- 2 sub stages: 2-4 and 4-7
concrete operational - 7 to 11 yrs
formal operational - 11 to 12 yrs
- early to mid adolescence
what age is associated with each stage of piaget's theory?
-exercise of reflexes - birth to 1 month
-primary circular reactions - 1 to 4 months
-secondary circular reactions - 4 to 8 months
-secondary schemata - 8 to 12 months
-tertiary circular reactions - 12 to 18 months
-invention of new means through mental combinations - 18 to 24 months
what are the ages that go with the substages of sensorimotor?
exercise of reflexes
children mostly reflexive, modifications of reflexes
primary circular reactions
increase in voluntary movement - more aware of environment and interact with environment
secondary circular reactions
enduring behaviors begin - more planned action - begin experimentation
previous experience guides novel learning, trying old solutions on new problems - onset of reasoning
tertiary circular reactions
active experimentation, new knowledge development
invention of new means through mental combinations
sequencing events - object permanency - can understand "no"
in the sensorimotor stage, intelligence develops as a result of ______ ______
in the sensorimotor stage, children explore and learn about their environment by ______
"thinking with the mind" (can problem solve cognitively)
during the sensorimotor stage, "thinking with the body" (learn by doing) is replaced by
-knowing an object is still there even when you cannot see it
-when doesn't exist, a child will do what is most familiar
-when have this, a child will seek what is missing
preconceptual (of preoperational)
stage the involves:
-use of symbols - language development - 1 to 2 words, simple classification
-pretend play prevalent
-transductive (faulty or flawed) reasoning
-animate inanimate objects
-egocentrism - "mine"
-parallel play to interact play
intuitive (of preoperational)
in this stage:
-reduced egocentrism - needs to be taught and not expected
-greater use of symbols - classification becomes more sophisticated
-incapable of conservation
-understanding based upon appearance - "bigger = older"
present a tall beaker of water to a child. pour the water from a short fatter beaker into a taller beaker. Ask child which has the most water. Achild who cannot conserve will say the tall beaker based on physical appearance. A child who can conserve will recognize that they are the same.
explain the test of conservation
concrete operational stage
in this stage:
-ability to conserve marks transition to this stage
-real not abstract
-seriation or sequencing
-above characteristics necessary to begin to teach game tactical play
-emphasis on "learning by doing" rather than thinking
ability to decenter attention from one variable in a problem solving situation (e.g. bee hive soccer - get the ball)
real not abstract
only deal with real events - teach tactics by "play-replay" method
seriation or sequencing
ability to arrange a set of variables by a certain characteristic
able to mentally modify, organize, or even reverse thought processes
later childhood (11+) formal operational stage
in this stage:
-ability to consider "Abstract" ideas that are not based on observable objects or experiences
-enhanced level of cognitive ability
-need to practice these skills to get better at them - these skills critical to good game play
enhanced level of cognitive ability
-hypothetical-deductive reasoning - may shape thoughts and feelings
-inter-propositional thought - e.g. anticipate action
-advanced abilities in seriation and deductive reasoning
seattle longitudinal study
-subjects increase performance until age 30 or early 40s
-by the age of 50-60 years, there is a plateau
explain total intellectual decline
partial intellectual decline
intellectual decline that occurs in some areas and not others
slower neural activation
brain decreases in efficiency (biochemistry, O2, etc)
what are biological changes?
well-estanlished information learned early in life is ______ to retrieve
older adults respond more ______
delay or avoid decline
ex) nintendo DS - brain age
-incorporate a physically active lifestyle
what will practicing cognitive abilities do?
-learn new tasks slower
-rote memory - need more repetitions
-learn motor skills more slowly
-more easily distracted by irrelevant factors
-increased distraction due to "neural noise" this results from a decrease in signal strength
what is the impact of aging on cognitive processing?
-decreases more than simple reaction time
-less so with lifetime skills IF accuracy is emphasized more than speed
what is the impact of aging on choice reaction time?
principle of motor development
a summary of the research literature which provides guidance for how children learn motor skills and instruction of motor skills
development is a continuous process from conception to death
uniform sequence of development
-progression is consistent for all beings"
-age at which individuals enter stages varies
-rate of development through stages varies
-intra-skill sequence is just as orderly as inter- skill sequence
normal motor function
develops in spite of omissions and reversals, in the usual sequence of motor development
motor development (control) proceeds
in an orderly manner....
control of motor functioning progresses
in an orderly manner according to the Laws of Developmental Direction: bilateral, unilateral, ipsilateral, contralateral
when skills can be most efficiently taught
skills develop as a result of "maturational unfolding" of the CNS (hard-wired approach)
skills develop when the child has been provided with the appropriate set of experiences (soft-wired approach)
-introduction of a skill too soon results in little progression
-a delay beyond the "readiness period" results in less than potential development
what are the principles of readiness state?
-measurable changes in physical growth and development that enables an individual to progress to higher skill levels
-is an innate process that is genetically determined and resistant to external influence
-refers to environmental factors which alter or modify developmental characteristics through learning
-will affect the onset of motor skill patterns
body position and skill performance
a comfortable body position in a skill must be achieved before a performer can execute movements from that position
requires that children have ample opportunity to practice:
-equipment for everyone
-time on task
-reduced wait time
retention of motor skills
-the degree of retention is directly related to the amount of over learning
-continuous skills are retained to the greatest degree over discrete skills
-is most effective in helping children learn
-"picture is worth a thousand words"
-children rely on visual info
-children will do what they see not what you say
-involvement of additional senses may improve the ability to learn new motor skills
-we can use 4 of the 6 senses in teaching/coaching: touch, hearing, sight, kinesthetic
is specific to the task which has been practiced
any transfer of learning which occurs is due to _________ __________ within the 2 skills
preparatory, propulsive, follow-through
what are the 3 phases to most skills?
phases of a skill
patterns of movement which characterize the actions of skilled performers are similar or identical
-differences are found in the preparatory and follow-through phases
trial to trial variation
overflow movements, unable to stop at appropriate time
unable to transpose right and left visual cues
one side of the body is not equal to the other in movement actions
loss of dynamic balance
loses postural control during movement actions
falling after performance
unable to control forceful actions
involuntary, predictable muscle and postural tone shifts that are age-specific and important to normal motor development between pre-natal and 9 months. these movement pattern shifts can be spontaneous or elicited by external stimuli
the first forms of human movement and provide interesting insights into the process of motor development
4th month of fetal life to 4th month of infancy
when do reflexes predominate?
reflexes are the primary information gathering source during the _______ period
there is a link between early reflexive behavior and later _______ movements
-serve a definite purpose
-are the building blocks on which the developing sensorimotor system rests
-bilateral or symmetrical
-unilateral or asymmetrical
-if they do not disappear they are classified as pathological
-can be used functionally if not integrated
-can be used as a means of diagnosis
what is the role of reflexes?
involuntary responses mediated by lower brain centers
-serve to help the fetus position its self for birth
-necessary for survival during the first few days
-help the infant maintain posture in changing environment
-may serve later voluntary movement, this link is questionable as reflexes extinguish before voluntary action occurs
-used by professionals to determine possible birth/brain injury as reflexes reflect the state of maturing nervous system
-Milani-Comparetti Neuromotor developmental exam
-test given 0-24 months
-examine - spontaneous behavior and evoked response
-in instances with pathological retention of reflexes, integration may be necessary by the neural process of layering over, inhibiting, or suppresssing reflexes and stereotypies
explain the diagnostic role of reflexes
-absence of reflex
-perseveration of a reflex beyond normal range
-unequal bilateral response
-responses that are too strong or weak
-estimated 27 reflexes
-strength of reflex
-4=reflex dominates individual
when is neurological dysfunction suspected?
minimal control - 1 month
elevates head when prone - 2 months
positions head when prone - 2 to 3 months
elevates head when supine - 5 months
explain voluntary control of the head (Stability)
-tries to roll from supine to prone. sits with assistance - 3 months
-sits when holding external supporting object - 5 months
-rolls from supine to prone. maintains standing when assisted - 6 months
-achieves sitting from prone or supine position - 7 months
-sits alone; rolls from prone to supine - 8 months
-pulls to stand, briefly maintains stand - 9 to 10 months
-stands unassisted - 12 months
explain voluntary control of body
-elevates trunk slightly, forward arm extension, & flexion & leg flexion - 7 months
-initial crawling - 7 to 8 months
-creeping; creeping upstairs - 9 to 12 months
explain prone locomotion
-walks with support and assistance - 8 months
-walks laterally around furniture using hand hold for support - 10 months
-walks when led with slight hand hold for balance - 11 months
-walks unassisted - 12 months
explain upright locomotion
-were developed to assess a child's developmental status from birth to age 2.5
-the BSID is divided into 3 scales: mental, motor, and behavior
-the motor scale includes gross motor items such as head control, sitting and walking; and fine motor items such as prehension, reaching and midline skills
explain the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)
5-6 months: large object, "squeeze grasp" pattern
6-7 months: large object, "palm grasp" pattern, thumb begins to oppose finger pressure
13 months: smaller object, control 3 finger tips and opposed by thumb
13-14 months: small object, "superior forefinger grasp"
14+ months: smallest object, no support
what are the five most common grip patterns?
1: wind up begins near child's ear, throw looks like chopping action, feet remain stationary, no trunk rotation
2: arms begins to extend outward to side, throw looks like slamming the door, entire body rotates
3: wind-up begins near child's car, as arm moves forward child steps forward with foot on same side as throwing arm, some trunk rotation
4: same as stage 3, expect that child steps with the foot opposite the throwing arm
5: wind-up begins near child's leg, arm is brought back and then up near ear. As arm moves forward, child steps with opposite foot, rotation begins in lower body and progresses to upper throughout the action
what are the stages of throwing?
1: arms held straight in front until ball contact, delayed response to ball, feet stationary
2:arms held out to sides, as ball approaches arms encircled in a hugging action, feet usually stationary
3: arms held in front, as ball approaches arms scoop under ball to trap it to chest, sometimes single scoop occurs
4: hands held in front, child contacts ball with hands only, sometimes a single step occurs
5: same as stage 4 although the child is able to move a few steps to catch the ball not tossed directly to them
what are the stages of catching?
1:little or no leg wind-up, stationary position, foot "pushes" ball, step backward after kick (usually)
2:leg wind-up to the rear, stationary position, opposition of arms and legs
3:moving approach, foot travels in a low arc, arm/leg opposition, forward or sideward step on follow through
4:rapid approach, backward trunk lean during wind-up, leap before kick, hop or step after kick
what are the stages of kicking?
1: no leg wind-up, erratic ball toss, body stationary, push ball/step back
2: leg wind-up so the rear, ball toss still erratic, body sationary, forceful kick attempt
3: child takes preparatory steps, ball is tossed or dropped for the punt, arms may raise upward as leg kicks upward
4: rapid approach, controlled drop, leap before ball contact, hop or step after ball contact
what are the stages of punting?
1: chop strike, bat moves in a vertical direction from high to low. feet stationary
2: horizontal swing, strike looks like slamming the door, entire body rotates, feet stationary or some stepping
3: upon swinging child steps toward target with the foot of the dominant hand, e.g. right handed, right foot steps from back to front
4: step occurs with the opposite foot to hand dominance. body rotation begins in lower body and progresses to upper throughout the action
what are the stages of striking?
1: arm acts as brakes with elbows moving backwards upon take-off. large vertical component, legs not extended
2: arms act as wings, arms are bent up and out to the sides upon take off, vertical component still great, legs near full extension
3: arms move forward on take-off, hands to head height, take-off angle still above 45 degree, leg often fully extended
4: complete arm, leg and body extension at take-off, take-off near 45 degree angle, thighs parallel to floor/ground when feet contact for landing
what are the stages of L.jump?
1: arms held high in high guard position, flat-footed contact, short stride, wide stride shoulder width
2: arms held in middle guard, flapping across midline of the body, flat footed contact, little stride length
3: arms held near hips, elbows nearly extended while arms swing in opposition to legs, heel-toe contact
4: elbows are bent and arms swing in opposition to legs, heel-toe contact with high heel recovery
what are the stages of running?
1: non-support foot in front with thigh parallel to floor, body erect, hands shoulder height
2: non-support knee flexed with knee in front and foot parallel to or behind support leg. slight forward body lean
3: non-support thigh vertical with foot behind support leg with knee flexed, more forward body lean
4: non-support leg swings in a pendular action, forward body lean, arms in opposition to leg swing
what are the stages of hopping?
1: resembles rhythmically uneven run, trail leg crosses in front of lead leg during airborne phases and remains in front at foot contact
2: slow-moderate tempo with choppy rhythm, trail leg stiff, hip often oriented sideways, vertical lift exaggerated
3: smooth rhythmical pattern, moderate tempo, feet remain close to ground, hips oriented forward
what are the stages of galloping?
1: broken skip pattern or irregular rhythm, slow deliberate movement, ineffective arm action
2: rhythmical skip pattern, arms provide body lift, excessive vertical lift
3: arms action reduced with hands below shoulders, easy rhythmical movements, support foot near surface on hop
what are the stages of skipping?
a theory that explains age-related motor development
developmental stage theory
believes that accomplishment of certain tasks within a particular time span are prerequisites to progression at higher levels
highly predictable movements
a developmental sequence (stage) is a series of ______ ______ ______
hierarchical, qualitative change
a necessary criterion of stage theory is that of ______ ______ _______
1) identify valid stages or developmental sequences in motor development
-inter skill sequences - between skills (ex: rolling to sitting to crawling)
-intra skill sequences - within skills (ex: 5 stages with throwing)
2) identify mechanism of stage change
-ex: what causes a child to go from crawling to walking? or why does a child step with the same hand and foot one day and opposition another day?
-what aspects of a child's development influence how a child performs a motor skill (ex: strength or balance etc)
what are the two tasks of motor development researchers
many researchers in motor development believe in the ______, _______ sequence of motor skill development reflecting observed, qualitative transformations in response selection
do all children go through the sequence?
do all children go through the sequence in the same order?
a _______, _______ sequence is a prerequisite of stage theory
segmental and total body
what are the two approaches to stage theory?
believes that individuals progress through stages for specific body parts
total body approach
identifies stages for the entire body
what are the characteristics of stages?
new behavior is observed which is qualitatively different from previous behaviors
later stages of a skill/behavior grow out of earlier stages
within a stage behaviors emerge and mix with previous behaviors. no regression.
a universal order exists. stages lead to one another. stages are unable to be reordered. cannot skip stages
an imbalance between an individuals mental structure and the environment stimulate the emergence of a new stage. Results in stability in the middle of a stage and instability (variability) during transitions between stages
behaviors or patterns within each stage are interconnected to form an organized whole
there is a time lag between the emergence of a given pattern of behaviors and the ability to apply them to all situations
At the bottom of the pyramid and mountains are reflexes
Reflexes give designation to cognitive ability
Reflexes come from brain stem...later register at the cortical level, but they are involuntary
Stimulus response....if there is a specific stimulus, there is a specific response
Generally around 3-4 months in utero, start to see reflexes
Reactions are more sophisticated forms of reflexes....go on to first year of life
Think there is a link between early reflexes and later movements
Once a reflex has occurred, it is sent into the motor area of the cortex
A large part of pediatric PT is trying to integrate pathological reflexes
If they are not integrated, can be used functionally
Primitive are more about survival
Postural reflexes/reactions are about protecting body as begin to get and maintain upright posture and knowing where your body is against gravity
Milani-Comparetti Neuromotor Developmental exam
what they use to see if your child is on target or not
If don't have search reflex, baby has serious brain disorder
Grip reflex persists, concern for CP
Weak right reflex suggests left brain damage
Two years old - speech - not able to form full sentences - mostly just one word - maybe really short sentences - "orange"
Four/five years - "it is an orange"
assimilate vs accommodation
Assimilation ex) show orange, ask what it is, say orange....show apple, will think it is an orange (due to similarities)...say it is an apple, then will accommodate to find differences
Continuing to exhibit the Cephalo-caudal and Proximo-distal developmental trends, the child continues to gain control of her trunk and upper arms, and then finally her legs on her path to upright locomotion.
Once the child is able to sit unassisted, she then attempts to explore her environment further by standing. At approximately 9 months, the child will begin to pull-to-stand and support herself by holding onto furniture. She will "cruise" around furniture in an early walking attempt. The base of support will be wide, and when she lets go, her arms will raise up and out to the sides of her body in a "high-guard" position.
By 12 months, the child should be standing independently, and may even be able to take some unassisted steps.
In Motor Development, crawling is movement along the ground with the stomach in contact. Creeping is what we normally refer to as crawling.
Numerous screening and assessment instruments are available to identify typical and atypical infant development. With the use of these instruments, children who do not fall within the normal ranges of development can be identified early and recommended for intervention.
We are particularly interested in Motor Development. Many of the current instruments have a specific testing section for the motor domain. One of these instruments is the Bayley Scales.
Originally developed in 1969, the BSID is periodically updated and is considered outstanding among infant tests in terms of technical quality.
This scale is a comparison of sighted and unsighted children in their attainment of upright locomotion.
As we can see from the age differentials, the average sighted child precedes the average unsighted child in all of these stages anywhere from .85 months to 7.15 months. *
Why do you think that is??
*What are some things that care givers of unsighted children can do to help facilitate development??
Halverson's 10 stages of Grasping (manipulation)
Gross Motor Control precedes Fine Motor Control, therefore children progress through a series of stages prior to being able to grasp objects.
The smaller the object, the more difficult the grasp.
Initially the child will attempt to obtain the object with both hands in a scooping fashion towards the midline of the body. The child will hold the object in the palm rather than towards the end of the fingers. Eventually (around 7 mos.), the fingers will curl around the object, thus innervating the finger tips. The thumb will begin to have a role in opposing the pressure of the fingers.
The child will initially attempt to grasp objects in a face down (palm down) manner until around 9 mos., when they will reach for objects with the typical "handshake" grip.
At approximately 10-13 mos., the child will grasp with finger tips and thumb rather than relying on the palm for support. After 13 mos., the child should be able to grasp and hold objects without a supporting surface on which to rest the hand.
Cannot study motor development in isolation.
Need to consider all 3 domains of development
Each area of development is related to the other 2 so we need to have an understanding of the embeddedness of development.
Knowledge of MD is important for many people. It is particularly important in the sport and physical activity area as children are not small adults and they need to be treated accordingly.
Knowledge of MD helps us to ......(talk from slide)
There are many terms used interchangeably in every day language. People often confuse terms such as motor development, motor learning and motor control.
The whole are of study is called Motor Behavior and refers to the disciplines which investigate principles of human movement.
This area is split into:
- Motor Control
- Motor Learning
- Motor Development, many people will also include
- Sport Psychology in the motor behavior area.
Define MC - neuro-physiological factors which effect human movement.
Prevailing theories in the area are:
SCHEMA theory - an early theory which compared the control of human movement to that of a computer program which had the correct program to run and compared what you did to what should have been.
DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS theory - a more contemporary theory which talked about how movements were the product of the many different "subsystems" which are operating in a person e.g. balance, strength, motivation, experience, coordination etc. Different people perform in different ways because they have different levels of these subsystems.
MC has studied areas such as (off slide)
Most MC research is lab based and has clinical applications. It has been used in sport, with the elderly and also with astronauts and how they move.
It is highly theoretical and involves a tremendous amount of biomechanical and neurophysiological measures.
Looks at processing speed, connections in brain, how to move muscle, etc.
Most work has been lab based and has clinical and sport applications
ML involves the study of the processes involved in acquiring and perfecting motor skills.
It has been used extensively in sport settings.
The major theory of ML is information processing theory. This theory examines how learners process the information they are given by coaches, information they are given by the environment and the information they receive from their body when they learn.
Research in this area has looked at areas such as:
- how much information a person can process in different
stages of learning
- practice schedules - e.g. massed vs. distributed practice
- the type of feedback - e.g. knowledge of results & knowledge
The research has both been in a lab with manual positioning tasks, reaction time etc, and in applied settings such as sport and PE.
SP involves a variety of psychological factors which enhance sports performance. Much of the theory has come from the area of clinical psychology and counseling and been applied to sport performance.
Researchers have studied areas such as:
- anxiety and arousal and how to control these at appropriate levels during competition.
- what motivates individuals to participate in different kinds of sports. A hot topic at the moment is exercise adherence.
- the use of mental rehearsal strategies such as visualization to enhance sports performance.
- the use of relaxation techniques and positive self talk to enhance performance.
- the study of self efficacy and self-esteem and how it relates to performance and drop out in sports.
the different types of attributions people make to their success or failure for example attributing to luck or skill.
A lot of these factors are converging
-ex) exoskeleton - combination of motor control and sports psych
-will put an exoskeleton on a person, person mentally envisions moving body, brain sends impulses and are interpreted by a machine that makes body move
Original definition of MD in 1974 came out of the nature-nurture debate which has dominated human scientific study. It recognized that both heredity (maturing organism) and environment influence the development of motor skills.
For a while MD had two opposing schools of study, one study the output of MD such as how far can you throw, jump, how fast can you run etc. The other studied movement process in trying to understand why people of certain ages performed motor skills in specific ways. Early work also tended to focus on children alone.
The 1989 definition developed a lifespan perspective which acknowledges that developmental changes take place in adults, particularly older adults and thus should be incorporated in MD. The second definition included the notion of not only looking at the changes that were taking place over the lifespan, but also trying to understand why those changes were occurring and what factors account for them
Motor behavior = actually movement demonstrated
-processes that underlie these behaviors and the factors that affect them
Motor behavior: baby walking
-what are factors that influence this?
-precursor is crawling, is neuromotor processing available
-leg strength -Budha babies tend to walk later due to weight
Many old scientific reports have discussed the development of motor skills. In 1787 Tiedman provided substantial evidence on the development of his son's motor skills across infancy. He found common patterns of movement and described many of the reflexes we have now identified and still use for screening children.
100 years later Darwin undertook a significant description of infants describing the stereotypes and reflexes common in infancy.
Most researchers of this time period were interested in cognitive development but used motor development as a means to get at cognitive development.
Maturation took over as the dominant framework in animal and human sciences. Researchers believed that genetics determined behaviors and that the environment or experience had little impact.
Gesell and McGaw suggested that there were "critical" periods of development for skills such as motor skills to emerge and that not learning these skills during the critical period could retard development. Both researchers described & explained movement patterns.
Bayley defined the development of motor skills and reflexes in infancy and developed a scale to evaluate them. We still use this scale today.
Wild looked at stages in movement patterns and said we progress through these stages to learn a movement.
Do need to know that in the 30's through 80's, we took a very maturational perspective....when the child's body is old enough and ready, it will move and do what it is supposed to...we don't believe this anymore....now we believe that there is a lot going on between environment and child
Normative Descriptive Period
MD began to develop as a discipline in its self. Researchers became very interested in what children could do at different ages and how age and gender influenced performance on different motor skills. Much time invested in describing movement patterns.
We began to develop "norms" in motor skills e.g. a typical 10 year old runs this fast, or throws this far.
Halverson developed a unique study tracking a large number of children over 10-13 years. She described how they learned different skills such as throwing. This data set is still being analyzed today.
Espenschade began to view MD as not just children but going across the lifespan and the lifespan view of MD began to get support.
Rarick and Roberton at Unv. Wisconsin and Seefeldt at Michigan State Unv developed stages for a number of different fundamental motor skills describing how children progress through how to kick a ball, catch, skip, jump, run etc
period we are in today 1970 onward
We began to question WHY we were finding the results we did. We started looking at the influence of the TASK, the ENVIRONMENT and the ORGANISM (performer) in understanding differences in performance. Dynamic systems theory emerged as a theory which helped explain findings in MD. Most research these days is conducted from a dynamic systems perspective.
Filling the hour glass is what Gallahue refers to as the "stuff of life".
Different phases of movement from reflexive to specialized. (Explain each phase and provide an example).
The movement that results during these phases is moderated by heredity and environment\experience (provide examples).
The progression through the different phases of development result in the individuals general motor control and movement competence (provide example).
Movement performance is influenced by:
- individual factors (provide examples)
- environmental factors (provide examples)
- factors within the task (provide examples)
These all relate together to influence motor development.
Main model that comes out of textbook
Foundations of all movement are reflexes and reactions, which are very diagnostic
-these are the only way you know if the baby is developing correctly or not
At rudimentary stage - standing, cruising, etc
Next phase, fundamental is all the skills that make up sport: hoping, skipping, jumping, throwing
Last phase is applying them to sport - throwing in baseball, can be applied to multiple environments
Model is saying how do we move through these phases?
-hereditary and environmental parts - need both to reach high level
-definite interface between nature and nurture
First reflexes, then (skips rudimentary skills) fundamental skills, then....
If we don't have motor competence by age 9-11, will drop out of activities
Proficiency barrier, have to get above this
Reflexes then preadaptive movements (sitting)
FMS - fundamental motor skills
One peak to the mountain of development in last model
-this model says there are multiple peaks, we are not good at everything
-we develop competence in groups of sports
-as we age, we end up in a different part of the mountain
-nature of activities change across time
**know different phases in models
There is always continuity in Motor Development. No matter what your origin is, you will always progress through predictable Motor Development stages from birth until death.
For example- a baby learns to hold her head up prior to rolling, then she will learn to crawl and stand. She will learn to walk and run, and become proficient in a variety of motor skills. As she ages, she will become less proficient, she will eventually need help to walk, she will regress in her skill and strength to move, and eventually she will die. Therefore, we can see that Motor Development comes full circle and is continuous.
Development is not just progress
Development is improvement for early childhood, but as age stay steady in motor development
Decline of development in old age
SO development includes improvement and decline
Motor Development is inevitable and will progress irrespective of race, gender, an origin. Inconsistencies exist only when there is a developmental delay.
There is not a set age at which all children will be in a particular stage. Stages are age related versus age dependent. For example: some children learn to crawl and become extremely efficient at getting around this way. Therefore, they may resist walking due to its inefficiency. Other children may prefer walking as a means of locomotion, and will become proficient sooner. All typically developing children will walk, although there is some age variability in skill acquisition and the length of time a child remains in this stage.
Have the students give examples of Intra and Inter skill sequences
Intra- (within) skills and Inter- (between) skills are both orderly and predictable. We will talk about both throughout the quarter. Early in the quarter we will focus on Inter skill sequences such as rolling front to back, sit to stand, etc. Then we will move to primarily Intra skill sequences such as the stages of throwing, running, etc.
Intra = order of five stages of throwing
Inter = crawl then walk then run
normal motor function
We all progress and develop regardless of skips in stages. For example, some children will walk before they crawl or may not crawl at all. This is not a good indication of a delay in typically developing children. Overall development is rarely affected by these omitted skills or out-of-sequence skills. Progression will continue.
Uniform sequence is not true of everyone
Some will skip stages
Some will also revert back to a different stage (ex if you have a hard floor will be scared to walk even though they are able and will choose to crawl again)
Not a concern as long as kids still meet milestone of development
Concern when skip sequences and not developed at milestone
motor development (control) proceeds in an orderly manner
Head to toe - upper body to lower body
Baby cant sit until has control of trunk
When the baby can walk: when have strength and control of legs
Proximal is center of body, distal is further from body
Development starts from midline and progresses to fingers or hands
Younger children hold book closer to themselves, not further away - can't share book because cant hold far enough away
Gross to fine motor control
Gross is like kicking or throwing a ball
Fine is holding a pen and writing
Fine motor skill will not develop if gross motor skill is not there
control of motor functioning progresses: bilateral, unilateral, ipsilateral, contralateral
Baby will reach for key with both hands
Easier to work two because does not require cross sectional movement and decision to use one
At two month will start just using one - just arms and just legs
With ipsilateral - start with arms and legs both
Ipsilateral = move same side of body - right arm and right leg
Throw with same hand a same leg
Only requires one side of brain (left brain to control right body)
At three years, will show ipsilateral
Contralateral - throw with left hand and step with right leg
Motor skills can be introduced virtually anytime throughout a child's life. However, for optimal retention and performance of the task one must consider the child's level of readiness. Consider the child's past experiences and current skill level.
The Biological Model suggests that as a child grows and matures she will automatically be able to perform skills relative to her age (Nature). Regardless of past experiences, a child will not be able to master new skills until they are neurologically ready.
The Environmental Model suggests that as a child is exposed to experiences and practices skills she will acquire new skills that build on her past experiences. (Nurture)
The "Readiness" theory suggests that there is an optimal period in a child's development when certain skills are most effectively acquired. This period is a combination of maturation (Biology) and experiences (Environment). Prior to this period a child will not be able to perform the task, and beyond this point a child will not find the task useful or relevant.
Biological = when ready, will get skill (ex: skip)
Environmental = as children get experience, practice, and instruction, will acquire skill (ex: throwing?)
maturation and experience
Maturation and experience are both important and must be considered together in the planning of appropriate motor tasks.
Maturation is inevitable. It includes the muscles, skeleton, weight, etc. Experiences will vary among individuals. Parenting, peers, school, etc. will influence experiences.
continuous vs discrete
- Continuous tasks tend to be better learned due to the repetitiveness of the motion (over learning) -ex: running, swimming, skating, etc.
- Discrete tasks require more practice because one repetition of the motion IS the skill- Throwing, batting, serving, etc. With discrete tasks there is a clear beginning and end.
The saying "just like riding a bike," came from the continuous nature (therefore well-learned) of the task.
Discreet has a specific beginning and end point (ex: throwing, striking)
Continuous = don't have beginning and end (ex: running, biking, swimming)
More you do, the better you get with continuous skills
We often use hearing and vision as a primary way of learning. The more senses involved in instruction, the more easily the task is retained. Senses give meaning to our experiences. Try to include varied sensory experiences in instruction.
ask the class how we can do more to involve the senses- ex: when teaching a student to gallop, demonstrate, provide a clapping rhythm, have the student pretend to be a horse, have them make the horse sound, have them smell the grass or hay, have them "feel" their legs galloping, etc.
May need to touch them, guide their hands to throw?
Inconsistency: will throw different every time
Perseveration: ask for just one big jump...they jump then keep jumping
Loss of dynamic balance - a lot with three or four year olds
Mirroring: if throw with right hand and step with left...will show you throwing with left hand and step with right
In demonstration....face same direction as children
The word "stage" is often used interchangeably with the words "phase," "time," or "level." A stage indicates that at this particular period in time certain behaviors will be present that were not evident previously, and that after this period these behaviors may cease or become modified.
-look at development like set of stairs
-as development progresses across time, kids get progressively more sophisticated in their ability to demonstrate performance
-notion of hierarchy
-stage 2 is biomechanically more efficient than 1, but is built upon stage 1
crawling and creeping
Crawling = army crawl
Creeping = hands and knees crawling
Bayley scale evaluates motor milestones - developmentally okay are not? Essential to PT world
universal and invariant
UNIVERSAL = happens all around world
INVARIANT = all people have to go through stages in same order
INVARIANT part pulled stage theory down
segmental and total body
Use the example of throwing from their book.
- beginning on page 284 with the figure, and continuing to table 14-2 0n pages 287-88. (just look at segments separately)
Total Body Approach:
Provide example of throwing. (look at whole body)
(We have just learned the stages from the total body approach)
1-chop, 2-slingshot, 3-ipsilateral, 4-contralateral, 5-windup...stages of throwing
-better for practioners
-segmental says: step 4 , trunk 3, backswing 4, humerus 3, forearm 3,
-each of these have the number of stages to them
-better for coaching at high level or doing research
characteristics of stages
Strict stage theorists believe that all stages must confirm to these characteristics for them to be called stages. We know that many of the motor stages do not do this. For that reason, many people use the term developmental sequences.
KNOW ALL SEVEN CHARCTERISTICS OF STAGES FOR EXAM
Consolidation - once develop a stage, never go back to earlier stage...just keep getting better
-data doesn't support this
CONSOLIDATION AND INTRANSITIVE ORDER ARE WHAT DRAGS STAGE THEORY DOWN, NOT TRUE
-why we reconsidered and modified into dynamic systems theory
Equilibration true for cognitive and motor
-CREATE AN IMBALANCE TO HELP THEM GET BETTER
-about stability and variability
-once learned skill, comfortable, consistent
-when learning new skill, no structural wholeness, massive variability from trial to trial
-wasn't enough time between learning skill and beginning to apply it in a variety of complex environments
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