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As climate changes because of global worming, species' ranges in the northern hemisphere may move northward, using effective reproductive adaptations to disperse their seeds. The trees that are most likely to avoid extinction in such an environment are those that
A.) have seeds that are easily dispersed by wind or animals.
B.) have thin seed coats.
C.) produce well-provisioned seeds.
D.) have seeds that become viable only after a forest fire.
E.) disperse many seeds in close proximity to the parent tree.
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope?
Which statement best describes what ultimately happens to the chemical energy that is not converted to new biomass in the process of energy transfer between trophic levels in an ecosystem?
A.) It is undigested and winds up in the feces and is not passed on to higher trophic levels.
B.) It is used by organisms to maintain their life processes through the reactions of cellular respiration.
C.) Heat produced by cellular respiration is used by heterotrophs to thermoregulate.
D.) It is eliminated as feces or is dissipated into space as heat in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
E.) It is recycled by decomposers to a form that is once again usable by primary producers.
Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). Consequently, the morphological similarities of these two species are probably due to
A.) inheritance of acquired characteristics.
B.) sexual selection.
C.) inheritance of shared derived characters.
D.) possession of analogous structures.
E.) possession of shared primitive characters.
Which of the following examples of an ecological effect leading to an evolutionary effect is most correct?
A.) When seed are not plentiful, trees produce more seeds.
B.) A few organisms of a larger population survive a drought and then these survivors emigrate to less arid environments.
C.) A few individuals with denser fur survive the coldest days of an ice age, and the reproducing survivors of the ice age all have long fur.
D.) Fish that swim the fastest in running water catch the most prey and more easily escape predation.
E.) The insects that spend the most time exposed to sunlight have the most mutations.
Which of the following events might you predict to occur if the tilt of Earth's axis relative to its plane of orbit was increased to 33 1/2 degrees?
A.) Summers and winters in the United States would likely become warmer and colder, respectively.
B.) Winters and summers in Australia would likely become less distinct seasons.
C.) Seasonal variation at the equator might decrease.
D.) Both northern and southern hemispheres would experience summer and winter at the same time.
E.) Both poles would experience massive ice melts.
Consider the food chain grass --> grasshopper --> mouse --> snake --> hawk. How much of the chemical energy fixed by photosynthesis of the grass (100%) is available to the hawk?
To recycle nutrients, an ecosystem must have, at a minimum,
B.) producers and decomposers.
C.) producers, primary consumers and decomposers.
D.) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers and decomposers.
E.) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores, and decomposers.
The best classification system is that which most closely
A.) unites organisms that possess similar morphologies.
B.) conforms to traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices.
C.) reflects evolutionary history.
D.) reflects the basic separation of prokaryotes from eukaryotes.
Generalized global air circulation and precipitation patterns are caused by
A.) rising warm, moist air masses that cool and release precipitation as they rise and then, at high altitude, cool and sink back to the surface as dry air masses after moving north or south of the tropics.
B.) air masses that are dried and heated over continental areas that rise, cool aloft, and descend over oceanic areas followed by a return flow of moist air from ocean to land, delivering high amounts of precipitation to coastal areas.
C.) polar, cool, moist high-pressure air masses form the poles that move along the surface, releasing precipitation along he way to the equator where they are heated and dried.
D.) the revolution of Earth around the sun.
E.) mountain ranges that deflect air masses containing variable amounts of moisture.
Global warming, as demonstrated by observations such as melting of glaciers, increasing CO2 levels, and increasing average ambient temperatures, has already had many effects on living organisms. Which of the following might best offer a solution to this problem?
A.) Continue to measure these and other parameters of the problem.
B.) Increase the abilities of animals to migrate to more suitable habitats
C.) Do nothing; nature will attain its own balance.
D.) Limit the burning of fossil fuels and regulate our loss of forested areas.
E.) Recycle as much as possible.
A 3-hectare lake in the AMerican Midwest suddenly has succumbed to an algal bloom. What is the likely cause of eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, such as this one?
A.) increased solar radiation
B.) introduction of non-native tertiary consumer fish
C.) nutrient runoff
D.) accidental introduction of a prolific culture of algae
E.) iron dust blowing into the lake
Two plant species live int eh same biome but on different continents. Although the two species are not at all closely related, they may appear quite similar as a result of
A.) parallel evolution.
B.) convergent evolution.
C.) allopatric speciation.
E.) gene flow.
Imagine that a deep temperate zone lake did not "turn over" during the spring and fall seasons. Based on the physical and biological properties of limnetic ecosystems, what would be the difference from normal seasonal turnover?
A.) The lake would be uniformly cold during the winter and summer.
B.) The lake would fail to freeze over in winter.
C.) An algal bloom of algae would result every spring.
D.) Lakes would suffer a nutrient depletion in surface layers.
E.) The pH of the lake would become increasingly alkaline.
Why is it important that an experiment include a control group?
A.) The control group is the group that the research is in control of; it is the group in which the researcher predetermines the nature of results.
B.) The control gorup provides a reserve of experimental subjects
C.) A control group is required for the development of an "if, then" statement.
D.) A control group assures that an experiment will be repeatable.
E.) Without a control group, there is no basis for knowing if a particular result is due to the variable being tested or to some other factor.
Coral reefs can be found of the southern east coast of the United States but not at similar latitudes on the southern west coast. Differences in which of the following most likely account for this?
A.) sunlight intensity
C.) day length
D.) ocean currents
Which of these ecosystems accounts for the largest amount of Earth's net primary productivity?
C.) salt marsh
D.) open ocean
E.) tropical rain forest
Why does a vegetarian leave a smaller ecological footprint than an omnivore?
A.) Fewer animals are slaughtered for human consumption
B.) There is an excess of plant biomass in all terrestrial ecosystems
C.) Vegetarians need to ingest less chemical energy than omnivores
D.) Vegetarians require less protein than do omnivores
E.) Eating meat is an inefficient way of acquiring photosynthetic productivity
Photosynthetic organisms are unique to most ecosystems because they
A.) synthesize organic compounds they obtain from decaying heterotrophs
B.) synthesize inorganic compounds from organic compounds
C.) use light energy to synthesize organic compounds
D.) use chemical energy to synthesize organic compounds
E.) convert light energy into matter
A researcher compared nucleotide sequences from five different species of mammals wih the human gene. The similarity between each species' version of th egene and the human gene is presented as a percentage in the table below:
Chimpanzee --> 99.7
Orangutan --> 98.6
Baboon --> 97.2
Rhesus Monkey --> 96.9
Rabbit --> 93.7
What conclusion can be drawn from these data?
A.) Humans and other primates evolved from rabbits within the past 10 million years.
B.) Most of the genes of other organisms are paralogous to human or chimpanzee genes.
C.) Among the organisms listed, humans shared a common ancestor most recently with chimpanzees.
D.) Humans evolved from chimpanzees somewhere in Africa within the last 6 million years.
E.) None of these conclusions are valid based on the information provided.
True or False: Secondary production refers to the amount of chemical energy in a consumer's food that is not available to be converted into new biomass.
False; Is Available
True or False: The process of nitrification involves nitrifying bacteria producing N2.
True or False: A poikilotherm is an organism that can maintain a specific body temperature even as the external environment temperature changes.
What is Science based on?
A.) Evaluations of a testable Hypothesis
B.) Unchangeable ideas and theories
C.) The assumption that natural phenomena have natural causes
D.) All of the above
E.) A and C only
Joe and Jessica go to the Bullet Hole on campus and do not like the food they are served. Their hypothesis is that if they go to this place again, they will not like the food. If they continue to follow the scientific method, what should they do next?
A.) Never go near the Bullet Hole again and tell all their friends not to try it.
B.) Survey other students to see if they like the food.
C.) Go back to the Bullet Hole several times and order different items.
D.) Call the city health inspectors and encourage them to inspect the Bullet Hole
What is the primary reason for including a control within the design of an experiment?
A.) To provide more data so that one can perform a more sophisticated statistical anaT
B.) To test the effect of more than one variable.
C.) To accumulate more facts that can be reported to other scientists.
D.) To ensure that the results obtained are due to a difference in only one variable.
E.) To demonstrate in what way the experiment was performed correctly.
Which of the following levels in the hierarchy of biological organization includes all of the other levels in the list?
E.) organ system
Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false?
A.) All organisms have a complex organization.
B.) All organisms have the ability to take in energy and use it.
C.) All organisms have the ability to respond to stimuli from the environment.
D.) All organisms have the ability to reproduce.
E.) All organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature.
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