AP Government: Political Parties, Campaigns, Voting, and Elections
Terms in this set (54)
holding to traditional attitudes and values and cautious about change/innovation, typically in terms of politics or religion.
Term used in the USA when one political party controls the executive branch, and the other controls congress. Example: currently we have a democratic president and republican congress.
Difference in political views between men and women.
A system of ideas or ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.
Voters who do not align with a particular political party.
open to new behaviors or ideals, willing to discard some traditional values.
A linkage institution is a structure within a society that connects the people to the government or centralized authority. These institutions include: elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
average in amount, intensity, quality, or degree
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A group of party officials and elite who meet once every four years at the National convention to determine the presidential nominee and set the party platform.
New Deal Coalition
The New Deal Coalition existed from 1932-1960, and included the Democratic state party organizations, city machines, labor unions and blue collar workers, minorities (racial, ethnic, and religious), farmers, white Southerners, people on relief, and liberal intellectuals.
a party organization, headed by a single boss or small autocratic group, that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county, or state".
A central component of realignment is the change in behavior of voting groups. Realignment means the switching of voter preference from one party to another, in contrast to dealignment where a voter group abandons a party to become independent or nonvoting.
When the selection of political positions is based off of connections rather than by merit
Political Party Organizations
organizations of citizens with similar views on issues who work to put their ideas into effect
Roles of Political Parties
Pick candidates, run campaigns, give cues to the voters, articulate policies, coordinate policy making, and create party competition
the political realignment of the South, which suggest that Republican leaders consciously appealed to many white southerners' racial resentments in order to gain their support.
Libertarians- Gary Johnson
Restricted government, fiscally conservative, socially liberal, personal liberty, armed neutrality, and capital gain tax. Want the government to leave the people alone.
Green Party- Jill Stein
Grass roots democracy, social justice, economic equality, ecological stability, relaxed immigration, very socially and fiscally liberal.
Socialist Worker Party- Allison Kennedy
Very progressive tax, support unions and better working conditions, very socially liberal, lax immigration, get rid of the CIA, pro guns
Reform Party- Rocky De La Fuente
No stance on social issues, fair tax, support fiscal responsibility, must monitor borders.
Constitution Party- Daryll Castel
Remove women from the military, very socially conservative, restore US power over the Panama Canal, no taxes, only tariffs.
A vote for candidates of different political parties on the same ballot, instead of for candidates of only one party. In the presidential elections, for example, a voter may choose a Republican candidate for president, but a Democratic candidate for senator.
provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President. It replaced the procedure provided in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, by which the Electoral College originally functioned.
extends the right to vote in the presidential election to citizens residing in the District of Columbia by granting the District electors in the Electoral College, as if it were a state.
In a blanket primary, voters may pick one candidate for each office without regard to party lines, gives registered voters maximum choice in selecting candidates.
Bush v. Gore (2000 election)
over and under counts, issues interpreting the ballots (butterfly ballots, hanging chads, etc.) Automatic recount because difference was less than 1%. Gore sues FL supreme court, allows for more time for a recount. Bush appeals to National Supreme Court, and they decide that all of the counties must be counted (14th amendment). Bush wins by 537 votes. Peaceful transition of power.
a meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy.
A closed primary is a type of primary election used to choose candidates who will run in the general election. In a closed primary, only voters registered for the party which is holding the primary may vote.
A registered voter need not publicly declare which political party's primary that they will vote in before entering the voting booth. When voters identify themselves to the election officials, they must request a party's specific ballot. Only one ballot is cast by each voter.
a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that coalition. The usual reason given for this arrangement is that no party on its own can achieve a majority in the parliament.
In person absentee voting, no excuse absentee voting, vote by mail, same day registration, automatic registration (motor voter), allowed in 37 states, thinks it helps democrats, but there isn't enough evidence to prove it.
a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.
Big shots in the party. Each state automatically gets 3 electors, and then more added for population.
In United States presidential elections, a faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who does not vote for the presidential or vice presidential candidate for whom they had pledged to vote.
the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote (known as disfranchisement) due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes: felonies.
the practice of scheduling state party caucuses and primary elections earlier and earlier than the general election. The act of front-loading provides decisive momentum toward one political nominee over another.
a regular election of candidates for office, as opposed to a primary election.
Louisiana/Top Two Primary
also known as a jungle primary, qualifying primary, top-two primary or Louisiana primary. Under this system, the candidates receiving the most and second-most votes become the contestants in the general election—as in a runoff election, in a two-round system.
a primary election in which voters are not required to declare party affiliation.
democratic form of government in which the party (or a coalition of parties) with the greatest representation in the parliament (legislature) forms the government, its leader becoming prime minister or chancellor.
the number of votes cast for a candidate who receives more than any other but does not receive an absolute majority.
an electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them.
The theory that individuals vote in their own best interest.
a general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision.
Shelby County V. Holder
in 2013: states with a history of racial discrimination must confirm any changes to voting with the Justice department. Supreme court strikes down how they pick which states it applies to, and throws it to congress, which guts it.
an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature. This is also sometimes called single-winner voting or winner takes all.
The day when many states agree to hold their primaries at once.
a US state where the two major political parties have similar levels of support among voters, viewed as important in determining the overall result of a presidential election. Examples: Ohio, Florida, North Carolina, Pennsylvania.
Laws requiring voter ID may be restrictive/oppressive to minorities/the youth.
Pro- majority of Americans support, avoids voter fraud
Con- may be considered a poll tax, oppressive to minorities
Voting Rights Act
1964 under LBJ, stems from the Civil Rights movement, requires states/counties to inform voters when making changes to voting, DOJ is expanded and can halt discriminatory election measures.
a term used to describe single member district and at large election systems that award seats to the highest vote without ensuring fair representation for minority groups. In the United States, these are typically single-member district schemes or at-large, block-voting systems.
Ross Perot, 3rd party candidate, may have swung election to cause the loss of George HW Bush, was included in the debates, distracted from Bush. Research shows that he did not actually sway the election.