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bio ch. 5
Terms in this set (70)
what happens during Gap 1?
cell growth, replicates organelles, carries out normal functions
what happens during synthesis?
DNA is copied
what happens during Gap 2?
What happens during the M-phase?
mitosis - division of nucleus
cytokinesis - division of cytoplasm
What stages make up the interphase?
Gap 1, synthesis, and gap 2
what 2 processes make up the M-phase?
mitosis and cytokinesis
mitosis ONLY happens if cell_____
is big enough and DNA is not damaged
how did G1 and G2 stages get their names?
scientists thought there was a Gap in activity. However, this is where cell growth happens .
cells must pass through a critical checkpoint during which 2 stages of the cell cycle?
Gap 1 and Gap 2
where does DNA synthesis happen in eukaryotic cells?
rate of cell division is linked ____
to the body´s need for that cell type
which stage of the cell cycle varies the most in length?
Gap 1 (longest phase?
why does a skin cell divide more often than a liver cell?
skin cells are exposed to more damaging conditions and must be replaced more often (every 2 weeks)
what is G0?
cells function normally but are unlikely to divide (not diving?
which typically increases faster as cell grows, surface area or volume ?
(we want big surface area, and small volume)
for cells to stay the same size from generation to generation, what 2 things must be coordinated?
cell growth is coordinated with division.
what process divides a cell´s cytoplasm?
cytokinesis (splits cytoplasm )
what process divides the cell nucleus and its contents ?
mitosis (splits nucleus)
why do cells divide instead of growing?
-larger cell places more demands on DNA
-cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wasters across the cell membrane.
what is a chromosome?
long, continuous threads of DNA. made up of DNA and proteins
why do chromosomes condense at the start of mitosis?
it makes cell division easier. become visible.
why are chromosomes not condensed during all stages of the cell cycle?
so proteins can come in and access genes to make proteins or copy DNA
How many chromosomes do we have ?
fruit flies - 8
chromatin is ____
relaxed, not undergoing division
how does interphase prepare a cell to divide?
DNA is replicated, cell grows, organelles replicated
mitosis occurs in what types of cells?
body cell or somatic cell
Order of phases in mitosis ?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (PMAT)
how does cytokinesis differ between plant and animal cells?
animals cells - cytoplasm is pinched off
plant cells- cell plate forms and turns into cell wall
DNA wraps around organizing proteins called _____
_________ is loose combination of DNA and proteins that looks sort of like spaghetti
sister chromatids are held together at the _______, which looks pinched
the ends of DNA molecules form structure called ______ that help prevent the loss of genes
-chromosomes are visible
-chromosomes are in the middle
-spindle fibers grab centromeres from both sides
-spindle fibers pull chromosomes
-chromosomes are pulled apart
-chromosomes spread apart back into chromatin
-nuclear envelope reforms
growth factors stimulate ___
cyclins activate __ which ________ (undergo) target molecules that result in cell division
what is apoptosis?
programmed cell death
what type of disease may result if cell division is not properly regulated?
cancer cells form _____
disorganized clumps (tumors)
malignant tumors results in ____
metastasize (break away)
list 3 ways mutations can occur in genes involved in cell-cycle regulation
hereditary, radiation, and carried by a virus
what does metastasize mean?
break away and goes into bloodstream
which substance is known to produce or promote the development of cancer?
mitosis is genetically _____
meiosis is genetically ______
binary fission is _____
asexual reproduction is prokaryotic cells
steps of binary fission
1. DNA is copied in a prokaryotic cell
2. cell begins to divide
3. 2 identical haploid cells are formed
advantages of asexual reproduction
- more efficient under ideal conditions (non changing environment)
-all organisms can reproduce
-no need to find a mate
disadvantages of asexual reproduction?
-population lacks genetic variety to survive in changing environment
-not more efficient than sexual reproduction
-identical offspring all respond same way to environment
if an eukaryotic cell reproduces through mitosis, what is true about the offspring and the parent organism?
they are genetically identical
in what types of organisms is mitotic reproduction most common?
simple plants and animals
list 3 examples of mitotic reproduction
-budding- growth from a side of an organism
-fragmentation - splitting of parent into pieces
-vegetative reproduction - forms new plant from modification of stem reproduction or underground structure of parent plant
what forms of reproduction does the sea anemone use?
both sexual and asexual by diving in half or breaking off small pieces from its base
what is the creation of offspring from only one parent organism called?
cells make up _____, make up ________, make up ________
tissues, organs, organ systems
2 examples of tissues found in plants
photosynthetic, conductive (xylem), and protective
2 examples of organ systems found in plants
root system and shoot system
how does an organism benefit from organ systems that work together and communicate?
systems help organisms carry out complex special functions and maintain homeostasis
what is the process by which unspecialized cells develop into specialized cells?
do different types of cells have different DNA?
no, cells differ because different combinations of genes are expressed
what role does cell location play within a developing embryo?
helps determine now it will differentiate
stem cells can be classified by _____
potential and origin
-totiponet - grows into any other cell (ex: fertilized egg)
-pluriponent - grows into any cell except totiponent
-multiponent - grows into cells of closely related cell family
embryo and adult
list the 3 identifying characteristics of stem cells
- divide and renew themselves
-remain undifferentiated in form
-develop into a variety of specialized cells types
list 1 advantage of using adult stem cells and one of using embryonic stem cells
adult stem cells - may prevent transplant rejection
embryonic stem cells- could become any type of cell. raises ethical issues
what is cell differentiation?
process by which unspecialized cells develop into specialized cells
smallest structure to largest structure
cell, tissue, organ , organ system
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