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The treaty that ended the Seven Years' War in Europe and the colonies in 1763 and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts.
Treaty of Paris
The movement to fence in fields in order to farm more effectively, at the expense of poor peasants who relied on common fields for farming and pasture.
The shift that occurred as families in northwestern Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption; this reduced their economic self-sufficiency but increased their ability to purchase consumer goods.
The eighteenth-century system of rural industry in which a merchant loaned raw materials to cottage workers, who processed them and returned the finished products to the merchant.
The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners.
A form of serfdom that allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers or slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money.
A series of English laws that controlled the import of goods to Britain and British colonies.
The forced migration of Africans across the Atlantic for slave labor on plantations and in other industries; the trade reached its peak in the eighteenth century and ultimately involved almost twelve million Africans.
Atlantic Slave Trade
The period in Europe from the mid-seventeenth through the mid-nineteenth centuries during which great agricultural progress was made and the fallow, or idling of a field to replenish nutrients, was gradually eliminated.
A belief in free trade and competition based on Adam Smith's argument that the invisible hand of free competition would benefit all individuals, rich and poor.
A stage of industrial development in which rural workers used hand tools in their homes to manufacture goods on a large scale for sale in a market.
The organization of artisanal production into trade-based associations, or guilds, each of which received a monopoly over its trade and the right to train apprentices and hire workers.
How was the open-field system of the Middle Ages?
The land was divided into long, narrow strips that were not enclosed by fences or hedges.
How was the condition of the peasant in Western Europe in the eighteenth century?
Peasants were generally free from serfdom and owned land that they could pass on to their children.
In the eighteenth century what did the advocates for agricultural innovation argue?
That landholdings and common lands needed to be consolidated and enclosed in order to farm more efficiently.
What characterizes the transformation of the English and Scottish countryside in the enclosure era?
Land was owned largely by middle-sized farmers who hired the poor as occasional farmers.
The English Navigation Acts mandated that all English imports and exports be transported on English ships, and also did what?
Gave British merchants a virtual monopoly on trade with British colonies.
The Englishman Jethro Tull sought to do what?
Critically analyze farming methods and develop better methods about farming through empirical research.
Throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, armies affected population growth in all of the following ways except
Soldiers and camp followers passed contagious diseases throughout the countryside.
How did the problem of food shortages change in the eighteenth century?
The advances in agricultural methods produced abundant food that overcame the possibility of famine.
The leadership of the Dutch people in farming methodology can be attributed primarily to what?
The necessity to provide for a densely populated country.
The rural putting-out system many competitive advantages EXCEPT what?
The workers had to purchase the raw material themselves, saving the merchant capital expenses.
What was the operation of the loom considered within the family?
A man's job, reserved for the male head of household.
What did the spinning of thread for the loom require?
The work of several spinners for each loom, which led merchants to employ the wives and daughters of agricultural workers at terribly low wages.
The idea of the industrious revolution is best understood as a result of what?
Poor families choosing to reduce leisure time and the production of goods for household consumption in order to earn wages to be used to buy consumer goods.
Describe guild masters among the laboring classes.
They were a small minority of the population who jealously guarded their membership.
At the center of Adam Smith's arguments in The Wealth of Nations was the belief that
The pursuit of self-interest in competitive markets would improve the living conditions of the citizens.
Between 1650 and 1790, a crucial component of the global economy was established when European nations developed what?
The Atlantic economy.
From 1701 to 1763, what was at stake in the warfare between Great Britain and France?
The position as Europe's leading maritime power with the ability to claim profits from Europe's overseas expansion
The War of the Austrian Succession could best be described as
An inconclusive standoff that set the stage for further warfare.
The British won the American component of the Seven Years' War because
They diverted men and money from Europe to the American theater.
In the eighteenth century, the biggest increase in British foreign trade was with who?
The British colonial empire.
What correctly characterizes eighteenth-century colonial trade in Europe?
Spanish landowners in the colonies instituted slavery among all the Indian populations in order to force them to work on the haciendas.
Why did the Dutch fail to maintain their dominance in Asia?
The Dutch East India Company failed to diversify its trade to meet changing consumption patterns in Europe.
The nobility of Brandenburg and Prussia, they were reluctant allies of Frederick William in his consolidation of the Prussian state.
The ruler of the Ottoman Empire; he owned all the agricultural land of the empire and was served by an army and bureaucracy composed of highly trained slaves.
A series of violent uprisings during the early reign of Louis XIV triggered by growing royal control and oppressive taxation.
A system used by the Ottomans whereby subjects were divided into religious communities with each millet (nation) enjoying autonomous self-government under its religious leaders.
The name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and marked the end of large-scale religious violence in Europe.
Peace of Westphalia
A system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state based on the belief that a nation's international power was based on its wealth, specifically its supply of gold and silver.
Members of a sixteenth- and seventeenth-century reform movement within the Church of England that advocated purifying it of Roman Catholic elements, such as bishops, elaborate ceremonials, and wedding rings.
A form of government in which there is no monarch and power rests in the hands of the people as exercised through elected representatives.
The core of the sultan's army, composed of slave conscripts from non-Muslim parts of the empire; after 1683 it became a volunteer force.
A series of treaties, from 1713 to 1715, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire.
Peace of Utrecht
Legislation, passed by the English parliament in 1673 to secure the position of the Anglican Church by stripping Puritans, Catholics, and other dissenters of the right to vote, preach, assemble, hold public office, and attend or teach at the universities.
The English military dictatorship established by Oliver Cromwell following the execution of Charles I (1653-1658).
A form of government in which power is limited by law and balanced between the authority and power of the government on the one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subject or citizen on the other hand; could include constitutional monarchies or republics.
Free groups and outlaw armies originally comprising runaway peasants living on the borders of Russian territory from the fourteenth century onward. By the end of the sixteenth century they had formed an alliance with the Russian state.
The executive officer in each of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, a position often held by the princes of Orange.
How did the Peace of Westphalia mark a turning point in European history?
Large-scale armed conflicts over religious faith came to an end.
How did the nature of armed forces change in the latter half of the seventeenth century?
Army officers became obedient to monarchs instead of serving their own interests.
The Baroque style drew its sense of drama, motion, and ceaseless striving from where?
The guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was what?
The subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy.
How did the Treaty of Utrecht resolve the problem of succession to the Spanish throne?
Louis XIV of France's grandson, Philip, was placed on the French throne with the agreement that the French and Spanish thrones would never be united.
The English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes held that
The power of the ruler was absolute and prevented civil war.
In the seventeenth century, why did rulers hesitate to crush rebellions?
Economic activity should be regulated by and for the state.
The primary cause of the English Glorious Revolution was
A fear of the establishment of Catholic absolutism by James II.
How did Frederick William the Great Elector of Prussia persuade the Junker nobility to accept taxation without consent in order to fund the army?
He confirmed the Junkers' privileges, including their authority over the serfs.
How did Frederick William I, King of Prussia, sustain agricultural production while dramatically expanding the size of his army?
He ordered all Prussian men to undergo military training, after which they could return home and serve as army reservists.
What was the effect of Ivan IV's laws regarding trade and manufacturing in Russia?
The economic restrictions and lack of security in property checked the growth of a Russian middle class.
What was one of the social consequences of Peter the Great's bureaucratic system?
People of non-noble origin were able to rise to high positions.
How did Peter the Great's westernizing reforms affect the process of marriage?
Young men and women were required to attend parties together and could freely choose their own spouses.
Why did the English government arrive at a crisis situation by 1640?
Charles I attempted to govern without Parliament and finance his government by emergency taxes.
The final collapse of Spain as a great military power was symbolized by the defeat at the Battle of Rocroi and the resulting Treaty of what?
French foreign policy under Richelieu focused primarily on what?
Prevention of the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France.
Also known as the Aztec Empire, a large and complex Native American civilization in modern Mexico and Central America that possessed advanced mathematical, astronomical, and engineering technology.
The vast and sophisticated Peruvian empire centered at the capital city of Cuzco that was at its peak from 1438 until 1532.
The name for the four administrative units on Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata.
The 1494 agreement giving Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A system whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians; it was a disguised form of slavery.
Spanish for conqueror; Spanish soldier-explorers, such as Hernando Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, who sought to conquer the New World for the Spanish crown.
A small, maneuverable, three-mast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century that gave the Portuguese a distinct advantage in exploration and trade.
The exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and the New Worlds.
A second century C.E. work that synthesized the classical knowledge of geography and introduced the concepts of longitude and latitude. Reintroduced to Europeans in 1410 by Arab scholars, its ideas allowed cartographers to create more accurate maps.
The European voyages of the fifteenth century derived from a desire to share in the wealth of what?
The Indian Ocean trade.
Who was Prester John?
A mythical Christian king in Africa believed to be a descendant of one of the three kings who visited Jesus after his birth.
What best characterizes the role of Europe in the world trading system prior to the voyage of Columbus?
Europe was a minor outpost that produced few products desired by other civilizations.
What did the Dutch East India Company do in the seventeenth century?
It took over much of the East Indies from Portugal.
Who were the group of people who benefited the most from large price increases in the sixteenth century?
The middle class.
After losing access to slave trading from the Black Sea, the Genoese obtained many slaves except?
Who resisted the efforts of the Portuguese to establish themselves in the Indian Ocean trade?
Muslim-controlled port cities.
When Vasco da Gama arrived in the Indian Ocean, how did he navigate these unknown waters?
He hired an Indian pilot as his guide.
What did Columbus believe he had found when he arrived in the Caribbean?
Islands off the coast of Japan.
What did the Treaty of Tordesillas do?
Divided the Atlantic Ocean with an imaginary line, giving Spain control of everything west of the line and Portugal everything east of the line.
How did Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe affect Spanish colonization?
The great distance of the Pacific convinced the Spanish to abandon efforts to trade in Asia and develop their American colonies instead.
How did the English and French seek a route to East Asia?
They sought a Northwest Passage across North America.
What became Cortés's crucial advantage in his conquest of the Mexica Empire?
He was able to exploit internal dissention within the Mexica empire.
How did the Spanish respond to the trap set by the Inca king Atahualpa?
The Spanish ambushed and captured Atahualpa, holding him for ransom and then executing him.
How did the Spanish monarchy seek to maintain its control over its colonies?
The monarchy established intendants with broad administrative and financial authority who were responsible directly to the monarchy.
At the time of his death, where did Columbus believe the islands he found were located?
Off the coast of Asia.
How did the encomienda system function?
The Spanish Crown granted conquerors the right to employ or demand tribute from groups of Native Americans in exchange for providing food and shelter.
How did French colonies respond to the problem of the low migration levels from France?
Colonial officials encouraged French traders to form ties with and marry native women.
How did Portuguese merchants obtain most of their slaves in Africa?
They traded for slaves with local leaders.
Which of the following best characterizes the immigration patterns (forced and unforced) of Europeans and Africans to the Americas between 1500 and 1800?
About four times as many Africans migrated to America as did Europeans.
What was the primary cause of the emergence of inflation in Spain in the sixteenth century?
The inability of Spanish agriculture and manufacturing to meet the growing demand for goods.
In chronological order, what were the three successive commercial empires established by Europeans in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries?
Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch.
How did Europeans initially justify the enslavement of Africans?
Enslavement benefited the Africans by bringing Christianity to them.
How did justifications for slavery change from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century?
Arguments supporting slavery began to focus more on science and nature and less on religion.
How did Michel de Montaigne offer a counterpoint to Europe's growing imperial activities?
Montaigne rejected the notion that one culture was superior to another.
The transition in Europe from a society where literacy consisted of patriarchal and communal reading of religious texts to a society where literacy was commonplace and reading material was broad and diverse.
A secular, critical way of thinking in which nothing was to be accepted on faith, and everything was to be submitted to reason.
Newton's law that all objects are attracted to one another and that the force of attraction is proportional to the object's quantity of matter and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Law of Universal Gravitation
Regular social gatherings held by talented and rich Parisian women in their homes, where philosophes and their followers met to discuss literature, science, and philosophy.
An early modern term for the study of the nature of the universe, its purpose, and how it functioned; it encompassed what we would call "science" today.
A group of French intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.
The approach, pioneered by Galileo, that the proper way to explore the workings of the universe was through repeatable experiments rather than speculation.
An idealized intellectual space that emerged in Europe during the Enlightenment, where the public came together to discuss important issues relating to society, economy, and politics.
View that monarchy was the best form of government, that all elements of society should serve the monarch, and that, in turn, the state should use its resources and authority to increase the public good.
A law formulated by Galileo that stated that motion, not rest, is the natural state of an object, that an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force.
Law of Inertia
Term coined by historians to describe the rule of eighteenth-century monarchs who, without renouncing their own absolute authority, adopted Enlightenment ideals of rationalism, progress, and tolerance.
A popular style in Europe in the eighteenth century, known for its soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids.
Descartes's view that all of reality could ultimately be reduced to mind and matter.
The Jewish Enlightenment of the second half of the eighteenth century, led by the Prussian philosopher Moses Mendelssohn.
A theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation.
The influential intellectual and cultural movement of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries that introduced a new worldview based on the use of reason, the scientific method, and progress.
Which powers participated in the partitioning of Poland in the late eighteenth century?
Prussia, Russia, and Austria.
What did the discipline of natural philosophy focus on?
Fundamental questions about the nature, purpose, and function of the universe.
What correctly characterizes the response of various religious perspectives to Copernicus's hypothesis?
Calvin and Luther condemned Copernicus, while Catholic reaction was mild at first and only declared his hypothesis false in the seventeenth century.
What did Johannes Kepler believe about the elliptical orbit of planets?
That they produced a musical harmony of heavenly bodies.
What was the primary goal of Galileo's experimental method?
To discover what did occur in nature rather than to speculate on what should occur.
How did Isaac Newton's law of gravity bring the Scientific Revolution to maturity?
Newton synthesized mathematics with physics and astronomy to demonstrate that the entire universe was unified into one coherent system.
Soft pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits are all characteristics of what style?
The most influential aspect of René Descartes' theories of nature was that
Mind and matter could be reduced to the same substance.
Francis Bacon formalized the research methods of Tycho Brahe and Galileo into a theory of reasoning known as what?
How did the governments respond to the new science?
States established academies of science to support and sometimes direct scientific research.
How did the scientific revolution affect the economy in the seventeenth century?
The new science had few practical economic applications.
Why did scientists find that Protestant countries were more conducive to their work, especially after 1640?
Protestant countries generally lacked a strong religious authority capable of censoring or suppressing scientific work that challenged religious doctrine.
What did John Locke claim in his "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"?
That human development is determined by education and society.
What core concept of the Enlightenment was the most important and original?
The methods of natural science should be used to examine all aspects of life.
In general, what was Voltaire's attitude toward government?
He believed that a good monarch was the best one could hope for.
What did Madame du Châtelet believe?
That women's limited contribution to science was the result of unequal education.
What does Rousseau's concept of the general will assert?
That the authentic, long-term needs of the people can be correctly interpreted by a far-seeing minority.
How did Enlightenment thinkers differ from those of the Middle Ages and Renaissance?
Enlightenment thinkers believed that thought had progressed far beyond that of antiquity, which demonstrated the possibility of human progress.
What was a striking feature of the salons?
That philosophes, nobles, and members of the upper middle class intermingled.
How did the philosophes evade the work of censors?
They filled their writings with satire and double meanings.
In "Persian Letters", what did the Baron de Montesquieu use to symbolize Eastern political tyranny?
The oppression of women in a Persian harem.
To what does the idea of the public sphere that emerged during the Enlightenment refer?
An idealized space where individuals gathered to discuss social and political issues.
A term applied to Jews and Muslims who accepted Christianity; in many cases they included Christians whose families had converted centuries earlier.
A French word meaning rebirth, first used by art historian and critic Giorgio Vasari to refer to the rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity.
Debate among writers and thinkers in the Renaissance about women's qualities and proper role in society.
Debate About Women
Magnificent households and palaces where signori and other rulers lived, conducted business, and supported the arts.
A program of study designed by Italians that emphasized the critical study of Latin and Greek literature with the goal of understanding human nature.
Northern humanists who interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity and humanism in terms of their own religious traditions.
Financial support of writers and artists by cities, groups, and individuals, often to produce specific works or in specific styles.
Why did a unified Italian state fail to develop in the fifteenth century?
Political loyalty and feeling centered on a passionate attachment to the individual city-state.
What did Francesco Petrarch believe?
That the recovery of classical texts would bring about a new golden age of intellectual achievement.
What did Italian humanists stress?
The study of classics for what they could reveal about human nature.
What was the most important factor in the emergence of the Italian Renaissance?
Great commercial revival in Italy.
What did the leaders of the Catholic Church do in term of the Renaissance?
They readily adopted the Renaissance spirit, especially when it came to art.
Why did the printing press find substantial success?
Increasing literacy and the opening of more schools and universities had created an expanding market for reading material.
Why did rich individuals sponsor artists and works of art?
To glorify themselves and their families.
How did the printing press provide a framework to challenge provincial sentiments?
Individuals widely separated by geography could read the same material and form a common identity that competed with local loyalties.
What did Machiavelli believe about government?
It should be judged on whether it provided order, security, and safety of the populace.
What best identifies the term "race" in the Renaissance?
Groupings of people based on ethnic, national, or religious factors.
In terms of gender relations, what did Renaissance humanists argue?
That women's sphere of activity was private and domestic.
In the Renaissance, why was women's work less valued and less compensated than men's work?
It was understood that a woman was either married or to be married and, therefore, not responsible for supporting a family.
What did Charles VII of France NOT DO to expand his authority?
Eliminate nobles' militias and troops.
What did the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile do?
It created a dynastic union but did not unify the separate kingdoms into a single state.
What were the Spanish conversos?
Jewish Christians, some of whom held prominent positions in the state, church, and business.
Why was Thomas More's "Utopia" remarkable for its time?
Because it asserted that the problems plaguing society could be solved by a beneficent government.
What new type of anti-Semitism emerged in fifteenth-century Spain?
Status as a Jew was defined as inherent to the blood, so Jews could never be true Christians.
Sworn associations of free men in Italian cities led by merchant guilds that sought political and economic independence from local nobles.
The official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy.
Moderates of both religious faiths who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.
Calvin's formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism.
The Institutes of Christian Religion
The name originally given to Lutherans, which came to mean all non-Catholic Western Christian groups.
Members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith.
The teaching that God has determined the salvation or damnation of individuals based on his will and purpose, not on their merit of works.
The alliance of seven northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
Union of Utrecht
The clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice (or office) at the same time and enjoying the income from each.
A document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, widely believed to bring forgiveness of all sins.
The fleet sent by Philip II of Spain in 1588 against England as a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.
A document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists, which helped restore peace in France.
Edict of Nantes
In the early sixteenth century, what did anticlericalism NOT focus on?
The heresy of priests who preached messages contrary to church doctrine.
What best describes Martin Luther's doctrine of salvation?
Salvation came through faith alone as a free gift of God's grace.
What aided Martin Luther as his call for reform emerged?
Luther understood the power of the new printing press and authorized the publication of his works.
How did Luther benefit from his appearance before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms?
Luther gained a larger audience for his reform ideas, and others began to challenge the church's teachings and practices.
What did the Colloquy of Marburg fail to do?
Resolve the differences among Protestants on the issue of the Eucharist.
Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany appealed to what?
The national sentiment of German princes.
How did the choice to embrace or reject the Reform movement occur in a territory or region in the Holy Roman Empire?
The political leaders of the territory or region determined whether to introduce reforms.
Why did Protestants allow the dissolution of marriages in divorce?
Protestants viewed marriage as a contract for mutual support, and married partners who failed to provide support endangered their souls and the entire community.
What did the people of Germany do as a result of the Peace of Augsburg?
They became either Lutheran or Catholic, depending on the preference of their prince.
How did the closings of the monasteries and convents affect upper-class women?
Marriage became virtually the only occupation for upper-class women.
Why did Elizabeth I have her her cousin and heir Mary, Queen of Scots, executed?
Mary became implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth.
Why did John Calvin reject the idea of human free will?
Human free will would detract from the sovereignty of God.
How did the Calvinists understand the idea of work or labor?
Hard work, well done, was pleasing to God, and all work with a religious aspect was dignified.
Why did most ordinary Poles oppose the Lutheran reform movement?
They held strong anti-German feelings.
The Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to what?
Confidence among Calvinists in their own salvation.
Lutheranism was spread in Hungary by who?
Hungarian students who had studied at the University of Wittenberg.
The dissolution of English monasteries resulted from what?
Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth.
How widespread was the influence of the Inquisition?
The Inquisition effectively destroyed heresy within the Papal States but had little influence elsewhere.
The Reformation in England was primarily a result of what?
The dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII.
In addition to reforming the church, what was the other goal of the Council of Trent?
To secure reconciliation with the Protestants.
The Pilgrimage of Grace attested to what?
Popular opposition, in northern England, to Henry VIII's reformation.
In religious affairs, Elizabeth I of England followed a policy that was what?
A middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes.
The inquisitorial legal procedure differed from the accusatorial legal procedure many ways EXCEPT what?
An accuser could be sued if charges were not proven.
What were Lutheran and Calvinist attitudes toward secular rulers?
Lutherans taught respect for authority while Calvinists encouraged opposition to political authorities who were considered ungodly.
What was the fate of most people brought before the Inquisition and accused of witchcraft?
They were sent home with a warning and ordered to do penance.
Why did France support the Protestant princes of Germany?
To prevent Charles V from increasing his power.
What was the overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century?
To uplift the moral condition of both clergy and laity.
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