47 terms

5th Grade Earth Science Constructive & Destructive Forces & Landforms

STUDY
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crust
the outer layer of the Earth
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
core
the central part of the Earth
divergent
tending to move apart in different directions -
Places where plates are coming apart
convergent
a boundary where earth's tectonic plates move toward each other. This causes a collision or subduction. This will result in the formation of volcanoes and mountain ranges.
transform
Places where plates slide past each other
plate tectonics
a theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move
landforms
natural features of the earth's surface
volcanoes
openings in Earth's crust from which molten rock, dust, ash, and hot gases flow or erupt
magma
a molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
lava
rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos
eruption
the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material
earthquake
a shaking or sliding of the ground. It is caused by the sudden movement of masses of rock along a fault or by changes in the size and shape of masses of rock far beneath the earth's surface.
plate
a rigid layer of the Earth's crust that is believed to drift slowly
fault
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
folds
places where rocks have been compressed into bends by colliding plates
vibration
a repeated back and forth motion that creates a wave
Ring of Fire
a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
seismograph
a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)
Richter Scale
a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
damage
the occurrence of a change for the worse
weathering
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
rockfalls
these happen when large blocks of rock break loose from a steep slope and start tumbling
erosion
(geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)
deposition
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
sand dunes
huge heaps of loose wind blown sand.common in desert and beaches
delta
a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
flooding
overfull with water (rivers and creeks)
mudslide
land that becomes too full of water and slides down a slope
force
(physics) the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity
topography
the surface features of a place or region. The topography of a region includes hills, valleys, streams, lakes, bridges, tunnels, and roads.
decomposition
(biology) decaying caused by bacterial or fungal action
constructive
helpful; serving to improve or enhance; beneficial
destructive
causing destruction or much damage
dam
used to retain water in a body of water
A way to control water flow
dam
Positive affects of dams
1) provide protection against flooding 2) mechanism to make electricity 3) starting point for man-made bodies of water
Negative affects of dams
1) expensive to build 2) ruins habitats of animals 3) stops natural flow of water, its animals and nutrients
Levee
type of dam that runs along the banks of a river or canal
used to control flooding
levees
Where can many levees be found ?
New Orleans
What are storm drains used for ?
drain excess rain and ground water from paved streets, parking lots, sidewalks and roofs
What is a positive affect of storm drains?
prevents flooding
What causes beach erosion?
wind and water
Beach erosion
when sand is washed away from the shore
How do humans affect beach erosion?
by building close to water they remove sand
How can we fix beach erosion?
1) by building further away from water, 2) revegetate dunes, 3) create sea walls, 4) add sand
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