27 terms

Geology Landforms and Processes - basic

Sci8 Geo Set 1 E3.p1a, E3.p3a, E3.p3b, and E3.p3c
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Uniformitarianism
Concept that geologic processes operating at present are the same types of processes that operated in the past
Superposition
A principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks if the layers have not been disturbed
Divergent Boundary
boundary between tectonic plates in which the two plates move away from each other, and new crust is created between them
Convergent Boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
Transform Boundary
Places where crustal plates shear laterally past one another. Crust is neither produced nor destroyed at this type of junction.
Unconformity
A break in the continuity of sedimentary rock strata. Often caused by erosion or intrusion of magma.
Dike
An igneous rock formation created when magma intrudes into vertical fractures of sedmentary rock
Sill
An igneous rock formation created when magma intrudes between horizontal layers of sedimentary rock
Sea Floor Spreading
The process that creates new sea floor as tectonic plates move away from each other at a mid-ocean ridge
Rift Valley
A long valley created by the separation of continental plates. Example: present in East Africa, stretching over 4,000 miles from Jordan in Southwest Asia to Mozambique in Southern Africa
Mid-Ocean Ridge
A long line of sea-floor mountains where new ocean crust is formed by volcanic activity along a divergent boundary
Oceanic Crust
The portion of earth's crust mostly beneath the oceans that primarily contains basalt, is relatively dense, and is about 5 km thick
Craton
The ancient core of a continent usually the oldest and most ancient rock of a continent.
Terrane
A crustal block bounded by faults, whose geologic history is distinct from the histories of adjoining crustal blocks.
topography
The distribution, relative positions, and elevations of natural and man-made features of a particular landscape, such as mountains, rivers, and valleys
magnetism
Magnetic field associated with the Earth. It is essentially dipolar (i.e., it has two poles, the northern and southern magnetic poles). Magnetism is recorded in metallic elements of igneous rocks as magma solidifies.
fossils
the trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
lithosphere
outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
asthenosphere
the fluid layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
island arc
a curved string of volcanic islands which are situated close to a boundary between two converging tectonic plates.
trench
unusually deep zones in the ocean - nearly three times deeper than the average depth of the sea floor.
Occur at subduction boundaries. Mariana trench south of Japan and off Guam is 6.8 miles deep.
hot spot
unusually hot area in Earth's mantle that is stationary for long periods of time, where high-temperature plumes of mantle material rise toward the surface.
Example - Hawaiian Island Chain.
fault
a break in Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past each other
anticline
an upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust (ant hill)
syncline
a downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust (sink hole)
plateau
a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
dome
An oval or circular uplifted area ,often formed by ridsing magma.
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