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history midterm

Terms in this set (64)

- although passionlessness seen as norm, Middle-class American women gave no private indication that they
believed in that ideal
- idea of mutuality (being satisfied) in bedroom& romantic love; couples had genuine interest in pleasing e/o
- In fact, both men and women saw sexual desire as the
natural physical accompaniment and distillation of romantic love. Some indeterminate level of sexual expression and satisfaction was acceptable in Victorian courtships when individuals were in love and the expectation of marriage was strong. NO SEX THO UNTIL AFTER MARRIAGE
- married or unmarried, American Victorians recognized
and expressed sexual desire, interest, and passion
- however this was in private not in public (talked about sex in private)
- Under the right circumstances, sex might be viewed as a romantically inspired religious experience, a sacrament of love
- sexual joined with spiritual in concept of love (Sex could be sacred and sexuality might be spiritual, if affection
were blended with desire)
-While women could be enthusiastic, and occasionally forceful, in expressing their physical desire, masculine sexual imagery tended to be more aggressive than female sexual image
- Sex was treated as a serious spiritualized sacrament of romantic love, and the occasion for a good laugh.
- physical tension in courtship as love developed during courtship yet they could not commence in sex until after marriage
- emotional conflict within women over desires vs ideals in premarital stages
- ideal of female purity but in private correspondence purity did not mean the asexual or passionless (purity might have erotic content)
- What legitimated sexual expression from a Victorian American point of view?
1. nature God, or both, had mandated sex. From the traditional perspective, men, and from a more
radical perspective, women, were fully. Sexed and the satisfaction of the sex drive was a healthy biological imperative, especially within but sometimes even outside the bounds of matrimony
2. also emphasized the natural side of sex but saw it
as created (often in God's scheme) solely for the purpose of procreation. Only marital sex for the purpose of
procreation was "pure" and thus escaped punishments for sins.
3. dominant view of sexual purity in Victorian America
was romantic. means that for Victorians legitimate sexual activity always reflected the "fullest" expression of the individual personality. sex reserved for the marital relation, but sexual intimacies such as kissing, touching, and other varieties of petting before marriage might be pure if they were expressions of romantic love
- demonstrates that antebellum white southerners were not nearly as consumed by fears of black men raping white women as their postbellum descendants were
- "rape complex": antebellum era, elevated the white woman to a pedestal and worshipped her as the symbol of virtue, honor, and chastity. Southern white men, he claimed, practiced "gyneolatry," or the deification of their women, which, in effect, purged white women of their sexuality and made them sexually inaccessible. These same men, Cash wrote, turned instead to slave women to satisfy their lust. Over time, white southerners came to identify white womanhood with the South itself
- Winthrop D. Jordan theorized that guilt-ridden white men who sexually exploited slave women and who were jealous of presumed black male potency in turn projected their own sexual desires onto slave men, in the process creating an irrational fear of black male sexuality
- the image of the menacing black rapist did not become the obsession of the southern white mind until sometime after emancipation
- in cases of rape against white woman, if they constentantly engaged in interracial sex, all support they had was gone as she did not have a credible reputation
- (slave masters) fought hard to protect black men accused of rape in antebellum south
- would grant reprieves or transport slaves out of state as compromise
- financial self-interest of the state, as well as that of the individual slaveholders, was the chief motive in sparing these slaves' lives
- Deviant conduct severely undercut a white woman's demand for protection in the Old South
- poor white women in southern slave society were less valuable to elites than slaves were
- More perplexing, perhaps, are the circumstances of free blacks who represented no such financial interest. Even so, community members, courts, and elected officials at times intervened to save the life of a convicted free black rapist. Motives could include any combination of humanitarianism, personalism, misogyny, class prejudice, personal grievance, and fear of job competition
- reformers, social workers, journalists, etc viewed working class girls thru the middle class lense & held them up to middle-class standards/morals
- set standards of "respectability" which went along with certain ideas of how a woman should act, dress, etc which was linked to chastity
- working class girls behavior fell inbetween promiscuous and middle-class standards
- working class girls: wage workers in shops or factories that were single & away for their homes for the 1st time out of the realm of protection of their families
- used their money to go to dance halls, amusement parks, movies, etc & engage with the opposite sex (all these actions evoked close contact)(flirting, touching, kissing games)(had sexual themes & suggestive humor)(dancing involving close contact)
- sexuality became a important part of their emerging culture
-entertainment centered around heterosexual interactions
- women began to dress up to catch a man's eye (vice workers described them as looking like prostitutes)
- custom of "treating" & "charity girls" (old fashioned sugar daddy): men paid for their female companion's movie tickets, food, etc. & women offered sexual favors back (from flirtation to sex) (did not accept money so different from prostitutes)
- leisure culture resulted in sexual harrassment/abuse in the work force
- arrangements to getting a good time which she could not afford herself
- unmonitored sexual behavior in dressing rooms at work
- treating became a viable option bc many women didn't earn a living wage due to the gender pay gap
- small living spaces like boarding houses/tenement homes also contributed to close intergender contact
- to working class, premarital sex could be respectable in certain contexts
- mormon polygamy threatened standards of monogamy & women controlling their own fertility and the special status accorded women as wives and mothers
- mormonism started in response to social disorder; utopian vision was formed by a desire to restore individual and community order and by a belief that all could be part of the immediate building of Zion on earth
- polygamy became a social duty & way of salvation
- women had visions influencing them to commit to polygamy
- mormon women fought criticism to polygamy in "Women's Exponent" (cited abortion, divorce, prostitution as signs of corruption of society & stated returning to a patriarchal marriage system in the bible would purify society)
- claimed normal society was corrupted and they removed themselves to create a new society patterned upon relationships to restore order
- polygamy would strengthen the family as every women had a man to support her & didn't have to resort to prostitution
-"God knew that women were better prepared than men to keep this holy law and that there were more devotional women than men."
- mormon women saw themselves as curbing the passion of depraved men
- mormon women didn't like the double standard, they were expected to shun female sinners but men didn't follow thru with shunning male sinners
- victims of male sexuality
- polygamy would correct men using unlawful outlets for sexuality (instead of a mistress, get anoterh wife)
- polygamy would institutionalize "natural" law and a double
standard of sexuality. Such social control was the key to
women's attaining their "true" position
- polygamy contributed to sex for procreation; security
and status of mormon women's position were
linked to their reproductive capacity and to their virtue (object of marriage relations was for reproduction)
-Plural marriage, however, allowed women to share the few good men & produced good healthy children while monogamy forced women to marry bad men
- polygamy emotionally damaged these women & turned to their children & other women for compensation & sometimes found strength in sisterhood
- polygamy attemptedto incorporate and control erotic potential in men's lives, while maintaining the total identification of sex with procreation, and thus women's role, in women's lives
- use of multiple types of contraception at once
- still available on the DL despite anti-obscenity laws
- rubber condoms in 1860
- prior to 1906 most medical products sold to consumers without consumer protections; health fraud was high & unregulated market was dangerous
- condoms both skin and rubber were not as effective as now, yet no contraceptives that were close to 100% effective existed during this time
- females didn't have control over abstinence, doctors warned against withdrawal & encouraged sex during "safe periods" believing it was successful yet it was no effective
- condoms proved a more reliable contraceptive with a 50% success rate in this time
- shown in mosher's survey condoms & douches most popular contraceptive
- women also used IUDS, diaphragm/cervical caps of sorts
-risks in black market birth control motivated people to develop techniques for self protection (like using 2 types at 1 time, sharing their experiences with different brands)
- Margaret Sanger: believed that elitism kept birth control out of the hands of the working class; birth control as a class issue; made the fight for birth control a political
movement
- there was not intensive studies or teachings on it so doctors in the dark
- before birth control standardized, sellers could make great claims & charge more but didn't mean it was more effective
- birth control ads prominent in immigrant working class magazines/newspapers
- birth control targeted towards working class & many were influenced by ads as they were willing to give money to limit family sizes they could not afford
- african americans brought over natural methods birth control
- Madame Restell: professional abortionist
- repeatedly arrested & tried but never able to close her business
- her name became closely associated with abortion
- abortion was the ultimate crime of womenhood & madame restell embodied that
- sold abortifacients, provided advice on contraception, kept a boardinghouse where women could give birth in anonymity & arrange for adoption of unwanted infants
- media & courtroom criminalized Madame as an inhumane monster
- after 1830 shift away from religious authority; unwanted pregnancies emerged & woman became responsible
- doctors not professionalized yet & relied on midwives
- in 1857 AMA launched campaign to end abortion
- in efforts to professionalize, doctors criminalized uneducated abolition (attempted to become gynecologists) & thus Madame
- she represented all that was evil with abortionists & the practice; use of her as a symbol closed off discourse
- IN NY abortion before quickening legal
- Madame arrested after one woman confessed & believed it was after quickening however she only set woman up with a man to abort it; later found not guilty
- Restell seen as threat to institution of marriage
- theme of abortionist as a servant of evil women
- medical publications echoed this & said abortion was murder
- ignored presence of men & reasons why women would choose to abort
- criminalize abortion as a threat to womanhood
- law in 1845 stated that abortion at any time during pregnancy was a misdemeanor & mandatory 1yr in prison; those who sought abortion or self-aborted were charged with 1k fine or 3-12months in prison
- Restell began to advertise her aborting pills as "menstrual pills" to regulate other "issues" to surpass the law
- media controlled view of Restell
- Comstock: abortion was an attack on the white race, had her arrested for selling him pills while he was undercover (violated Comstock Law)
- 20th cent, new white women reformers began to view female immorality in a different light & took different steps to fight it
- thought of young women who took part in illicit sexual relations as delinquents in need of guidance
- looked to societal & family environments to explain delinquency of young working class girls
- called for reformatories, detention centers, juvenile courts, state intervention, etc
- emerged in response to anxiety over the spread of sexuality & rise in "promiscuity" amongst working class girls
- vice crusaders warned young women were being lured into prostitution
- targeted immigrants, & posed a threat by spreading venereal disease as they were seen as primary source of infection
- young prostitutes victims of white slavery (controlled by pimps & immigrants were perceived as controlling them)
- white slavery books/movies/etc told tale of innocent white native born girl leaving the country to the city & once there she was tricked to lure her into prostitution
- Mann Act passed that prohibited transportation of women across state lines for immoral purposes
- blamed difficulties of adolescence & social conditions in which working class girls lived
- differed from early movements: these women were educated & dedicated their lives to social reform; pioneered new career paths for women in social work
- protect women & children from harmful effects of rapid urban growth
- systematic studies of poor girls in urban neighborhoods
- influenced by Freud's opinion on sexuality
- urbanization, industrialization caused economic hardship that effected the family thus young girls
- department stores: exposed girls to clothes they can't afford & might resort to immorality to obtain them then subject to harassment from men
- commercialized amusements also compromised morality
- looked at working-class family life in lenses of middle-class: bc of urbanization mothers could not adequately protect & morally raise their daughters
-working class families did not fit middle-class ideal in which children didn't work & father was main breadwinner; empahsis on nuclear families
- mother has responsibility of raising daughter properly & working class moms seen as incapable of doing this (working made her unable to take care of the home & tired, was not a big presence in their lives)
- female authority needed in justice system to provide maternal figures for those in places like reformatories; women police officers
- law which prohibited prostitution & liquor from cities/towns near military camps
- 1932 the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) initiated an experiment in Macon County, Alabama, to determine the
natural course of untreated, latent syphilis in black males.
The test comprised 400 syphilitic men, as well as 200 uninfected men who served as controls
- historical context: darwinism fueled american racism, blacks seen as prone to disease/vice/crime & couldnt be helped
- doctors said blacks had excessive sexual desire which threatened white society; black males had desire for white women; blacks prone to venereal diseases bc of this & treatment was impossible
- USPHS regarded the Tuskegee Study as a classic "study in nature,"* rather than an experiment; idea that the men would not be treated anyway provided the experiment's rationale; these two assumptions rested on the prevailing medical attitudes concerning blacks, sex, and disease
- in finding subjects, They were told they were ill and were promised free care. Offered therapy, they became willing subjects.The USPHS did not tell the men that they were
participants in an experiment; on the contrary, the subjects
believed they were being treated for "bad blood"-the rural
South's colloquialism for syphilis
- the physicians engaged in the experiment believed that only autopsies could scientifically confirm the findings of the study
- 1955 article found that slightly more than 30 percent
of the test group autopsied had died directly from advanced syphilitic lesions of either the cardiovascular or the central nervous system
- experiment racist
- men leave home & productions follow to factories
- women no longer working side-by-side with husbands leading to lesser responsibility
- PUBLIC SPHERE ( work, law, politics) VS PRIVATE SPHERE (house work)
- lead to cult of domesticity (middle class women began to become in charge of the domestic space) (in order to justify exclusion, viewed women as morally superior this better equipped to raise children; uniquely qualified for domestic work) (glorification of motherhood & wife)
- divergence in what is innately male & female (man has rugged heart, women are soft hearted)
- GENDER ROLES
- fetishization of home as a result of economic changes (homes is a haven & women are moral guardians)
- notion of passionlessness: women are asexual (less lustful by nature); don't seek sexual pleasure since they can't experience it; fulfillment from children & the fact that they're asexual makes them morally superior; sex reserved for procreation & chastity valued; oppressive ideal but allowed women to control fertility/sexual actions (just say no) using moral superiority
- mens nature now perceived as animalistic & can't control desires
- grup of reformers tried to get men to curb sexual desires (sexual excess)
- Graham cracker diet to control masterbation
- conflict in marriages due to conflicting social ideals of men & women
- Five Points (Manhattan 1827): worst reputation due to prostitution, drinking, vice, Bowery Boys, bawdy behaviors, fights; brothels for prostitution grow; women resort to prostitution bc they can't live off factory wages (child prostitution)
- idea of women being inherently different
- consequences of separating work spheres: women no longer central to husband's work
VICTORIAN ERA
- women isolated in household from men
- separate spheres & "paisonlessness" created emotional distance in marriage
- rise of women's club movement (gravitated towards women in similar situations) (reasoned that if they were moral guardians, what if we applied these attributes to society at large; maternal commonwealth)
-> abolition & temperance (WCTU)
-> home protection ballot
-> conservative attempt for radical change
- very close relations, emotional bongs with other women (powerful emotion of the same sex) (doesn't threaten marital relations they coexist)
-> smashes: adult crushes on other women
-> boarding schools of same sex which led to intimate relationships
- boston marriages: women who didn't transfer romantic relations to men & formed households with women friends; not under scrutiny bc it was unfathomable that they were having sexual intimate relations with e/o (seen as naturally having touchy/feely encounters) (reproduction so valued that sexual relations with women would be absurd)(believed to be morally superior & asexual; didn't have husband didn't have sex)

Men
- close companionship with other men
- male friends helped e/o (gossip/confided)
- occasionally developed into something deeper (intimate/romantic/tender)
- shared beds
-> didn't assume homosexual relations with kisses & hugs as they we a common expression of deep Affection during victorian era
-> accustomed to sleeping in the same bed with same sex
- Abe Lincoln & Joshua Speed: intimate relationship & lincoln might be gay
-> were they homosexual? no concept of homosexuality in 19th cent however homosexual acts & no identities that defined sexual preference
-> same sex intimacy common in victorian era
- Walt Whitman: one of his poems interpreted as a coming out letter , however when asked about it said the critic was making bad inferences, it was a natural part pf heterosexuality in 19th cent
- 19th cent same sex relations not stigmatized as deviant because they were not seen as sexual
- every colony through law attamepted to establish racial order
-> Virginia 1662 status follows mother
-> Maryland 1664 punish white women with slaves
-> 1691 people can't marry across racial lines (abominable mixture) (white woman servant had kid with slave & kid was taken from her until kid was 30yrs old) (why? economic reasons; the community became responsible for bastard children so they were making sure they don't have to pay) (blurring of racial lines) (cultural: white men wanted to control women's sexuality)
-> 1705 against all interracial marriage & definition of mulatto
- anglo-world more dichotomous in defining race
- in virginia up until (1790s-1960s) never a time when marrying over racial lines didn't lead to punishment
-> tradition of policing interracial relations
- states outside of south:
-> Penn: if you were free black & married white you would be back in slavery
-> Massachusetts: banned interracial marriage in 1704 but dropped in 1840s
-> prisoner sentences & large fines
-> 38 states had miscegenation laws
- Antebellum South
-> sometimes interracial relations overlooked until neighbors were bothered
-> 19th cent; some tolerance esteem & class part of reason why it was allowed to continue
- Master-slave sexual relations
-> majority not consensual; no such thing as consent for a slave as they cannot defy their master sex
-> Thomas Jefferson & Sally Hemming: relationship & every child Sally had was freed by Thomas; were loves & relationship started malicious political debate; Jefferson never addressed it; theory kids resembled Jefferson also he was there when Sally conceived; we don't know they truth but we can infer they loved e/o
-> Robert Newsom & Cecelia: he raped her (he was a widow, bought her for sexual exploitation, built separate quarters for her & bore 2 children, cecelia & other slave George have relationship, she pleaded for Newsom to stop his advances & killed him with a club when he came to the cabin
- Politics of miscegenation
-> presidential election 1836: Richard Johnson lived openly with black woman; Vanburen won because he played the race card
-> Lincoln-Douglass debate: Douglass plays race card & claims Lincoln wants racial equality; Lincoln says he's not interested in interracial marriage
-> Miscegenation Coax 1864: pamphlet to pin republicans as for social equality
-> Andrew Johnson: defender of Southern privilege in Reconstruction period (anti miscegenation)
-> stigma against miscegenation continues
- most not effective
- opposed because it was going against procreative roots and contributed to the "suicide of the white race"
- "crime of onan": coitus interruptus (pull out method)
-> seen as waisting of seed
- most methods chosen by women
- prolonged breast feeding
- abstinence
- douching solutions
- early condoms made out of animal skin & fish but associated with prostitutes so looked down upon
- abortion
-> quickening: point in pregnancy when u can feel fetal movement (missed period not telling of pregnancy bc irregular periods common during this time due to poor diet)
-> miscarriage before quickening not immoral/illegal (woman would do harm to herself to bring on miscarriage thru poisons, excessive exercise, etc)
-> after 1840 abortive medicines advertised ("lady pills")
-> until mid 19th century never punished by law if before quickening
- natives knew well how to control with infanticide
- slaves: it was believed they had methods for miscarriage that threatened slave owner profit
- 1840-1880: birth control advertised more and available and access to information in cities and countryside (gave women control)
- men encouraged to take responsibility (condoms & withdrawal)
- 1829-1860 revise abortion
-1860s-1880 states pass intentionally restrictive abortion laws
-> concern from doctors for women's health; doctors behind a lot of laws
- until 1960s state laws against abortion so women would have to go underground (more expensive & dangerous)
- charles goodyear vulcanization: improve quality of condoms (rubber) & other birth control instruments
- ads in newspapers of pills (not openly talking about miscarriage since it would lead to arrest it would be discreet)
- federal gov't didn't involve itself; it was up to state law
- class bias in implementation of the law
- to get around comstock law, they would characterize devices in other ways (ex; condoms = "rubber goods")
-> manufacturers got around comstock by the way they packaged things, giving them plausible deniability ("female pills" "male pouch")
-> problems in defining contraceptives (pills could be used for other methods) which helped get around the law
- judges/juries/prosecutors reluctant to prosecute under comstock law & gave lenient sentences
- progressive era: reform movement in response to fears about industrialization, disparity in wealth
- movement against prostitution linked to venereal disease
- white slavery
- put pressure on officials to fight prostitution
- progressives
-> close red light districts
-> address problem of venereal disease
-> don't care about the welfare of the prostitute & dont care about what causes women to do it (opposite of 19th century movements)
- penal reform: instead of fining prostitutes, would put them in work houses/reformatories
- special courts & vice squads: led to entrapment of prostitutes, separate system in cities to deal with them
- criminalization of female adolescent activity: in cities etnic girls that would be identified as having racy sexual behaviors and since people were so concerned about prostitutes they worried about behaviors that might lead young girls to prostitution

How effective?
- rarely helped, backfired, worsened conditions for prostitutes
- exposure of prostitutes would isolate them from their families and further push them to prostitution
- girls in prison exposed to sex abuse by guards and used sexual bargains for privilege
-sexual behavior in young girls deemed deviant & criminalized

Impacts
- prostitution went underground, many homeless without brothels, couldn't return home
- exploitation: rent goes up for them
- increased streetwalking
- birth of call girls and massage parlors (forms of commercialized sex) (greater vulnerability)
- become controlled by pimps (no longer madames) to protect them
-> increased violence by pimps, clients, & police
- reforms didn't eradicate prostitution or help prostitutes
- repressive reforms and did harm to prostitutes
- concern about spread of venereal disease
-> social hygiene movement
-> federal gov't assumes control over hygiene
-> medical not moral problem
-> chamberlain-kahn act: lead to Division of Venereal Disease
-> states required venereal disease tests before marriage
-> WWI: military organization has to figure out what to do, lead to information campaign (posters attempt to educate), American Plan: arrest women in 5 miles of military institution ( repressive measure that hindered a woman's civil rights and contributed to double standards)