Anc. Rome exam 1

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Terms in this set (14)
"Triumph-Hunting" ground. Backward and hostile region. Roman province in Italy in the 4th-6th centuries. During the first Punic War, the ancient Ligurians were divided, some of them siding with Carthage and a minority with Rome, whose allies included the future Genoese. Under Augustus, Liguria was designated a region of Italy stretching from the coast to the banks of the Po River.
Gallia Cisalpina, the northern frontier of Italy in which Gallic tribes inhabited the Po Valley. The Romans called this area Cisalpine Gaul, "this side of the Alps", because of heavy settlement by the Gauls in the late fifth century B.C. After the First Punic War, Rome expanded her control to the natural boarders of Italy, the Alps. Rome began planting colonies in Cisalpine Gaul and this drew them into conflict with the Gauls who inhabited the region. Eventually Rome subdued the Gauls and added Cisalpine Gaul to the its possessions
The "Garden" of Italy. Early settled by Greek colonists and by the Etruscans, became fully a part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside. Its Greek language and customs made it a center of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture.
The fertile plain that Rome was built on. It was ideal for farming and the site of conquest by the Etruscans. Alba Longa, one of the few and earliest recorded non-Etruscan settles, is assumed to be the home of the Latin League, a coalition of city-states intended as a defense against Etruscan expansion. From here the city-state of Rome emerged, eventually becoming the capital of the Roman Empire.
(literally "behind the wall"). The sacred or religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome. The area was fortified to create space between the civil and military spheres. According to legend, Romulus marked out the first pomerium when he founded Rome on the Palatine Hill. This line did not necessarily correspond with the city's fortified walls or the zone of inhabitation.
The Etruscan culture was well-developed and advanced but distinctively different from the cultures of the other peoples in the region. This distinctive difference immediately led to the question of where did the Etruscans originate. There are two main hypotheses as to the origins of the Etruscan civilization: Herodotus believed they were Lydians who migrated from Asia when their homeland was suffering from famine, while Dionysius of Halicarnassus claimed that the Etruscans were native to Italy.
Founder and first king of Rome. Remus and Romulus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa. The boys were raised by a she-wolf and eventually Romulus would kill Remus. Founded the city on top of Palatine Hill. He invited the neighboring Sabines to a festival and abducted their women.
Temple built in dedication to the god Jupiter. The temple also included spaces for the worship of Juno and Minerva. Together, the three deities comprised what is known as the Capitoline Triad—a divine group significant to the Roman state religion. The temple was reportedly completed around 509 B.C.E.—the date itself is significant as it marks the purported year during which the Romans overthrew the monarchy (which was Etruscan, not Roman) and established a republican system of government. The building was begun by Tarquinius Priscus and completed by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus.
7th and final king of Rome (534 to 510 B.C.). His reign was considered a tyranny. Tarquin was married to Tullia, the daughter of Servius Tullius. Tullia had encouraged her husband to murder her father, so that Tarquin ascended to the throne. He killed off any senators loyal to Servius Tullius (the king before him). Tarquin was responsible for the building of Capitoline Temple (Jupiter Capitolinus) and the Cloaca Maxima
Principal popular assembly of the ancient Roman Republic. It functioned as a legislative assembly, through which the plebeians (commoners) could pass laws, elect magistrates, and try judicial cases. The Plebeian Council usually met in the well of the comitium and could only be convoked by the Tribune of the Plebs.

The Tribune of the Plebs was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman senate and magistrates.
Lars Porsennaking of Clusium, an Etruscan town north of Rome. He was approached for help by Tarquin Superbus after he had been exiled from Rome. Porsenna agreed to raise an army and march against Rome, but he was held back by several heroic Romans.Lex HortensiaQuintus Hortensius was a plebeian dictator in ancient Rome and in 287 B.C. Hortensius enacted an important law, Lex Hortensia, which put an end to a centuries-old class struggle between patricians and plebeians. The law dictated any law enacted by the plebeians applied to the whole Roman people. It ended the struggle of the orders and created the Council of the Plebeians.The Gallic Invasion of 390The First Gallic Invasion of Italy of 390 B.C. was a pivotal event in the history of the Roman Republic. The Gauls captured Rome and looted the city. The Gallic Invasion saw the city occupied and sacked for the last time in eight hundred years. After this loss, the Romans vowed to be the conquerors and not the conquered.Samnite WarsThe FSamnite War were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites from 343 - 290 BC. in Campania (close to Naples). The Romans looked to expand their conquest to Campania where the Samnites had settled. The Samnites tactic was to turn all of the other cities against Rome. Their goal was to stop the growth of the Roman Empire. The Samnites were backed up by the Gauls and the remaining Etruscan cities, but in the end the Romans prevailed. This shows the Romans stamina and drive to expand and conquer.