Positive Psych Power Point 2: Happiness (defining, measureing, history)
Terms in this set (31)
hedonics vs. eudaimonics
Hedonics: he pursuit of pleasure; sensual self-indulgence. Pleasure considered shallow. Raw sensations (back rub, etc). Higher pleasure of mind (fav movie).
Eudaimonics: meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning.
What was Benthams utilitarian view on happiness in the 1700s.
Pleasure without pain (utilitarian view), joy is essential -interested in happiness from the point of law & society
How did the view on happiness change post world war II?
Interest grew in monitoring well-being of society (large scale, representative surveys by GALLUP, Gurin, Cantril)
What important realization did Bradburn make in 1969?
Affect Balance Scale.
Positive & Negative feelings are somewhat independent of one anothe. We must study them separately to get the full picture of emotional affect. THIS MEANS: removing sadness in therapeutic work will not necessarily increase happiness
Self Actualization, Esteem needs, Belongingness and love needs, safey needs, psyciolgoical needs.
What is happiness?
State of well-being characterized by emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy
Name three theories about what causes happiness.
1. GOAL & NEED SATISFACTION
-Freud, Maslow; you need to have your basic needs met for pleasure
-The closer you are to your IDEAL SELF (or OUGHT SELF) the happier you will be
-If you are far away you will feel tension that needs to be reduced (tension-reduction model)
What determines what you WANT (goals)?
You'll be happy when you are done achieving your goal
DOING things is what gives us joy- FLOW when we are doing things we enjoy/that we are good at
Things that are intrinsically rewarding (e.g., spending time w/ someone you love)
3. GENETICS: there is stability - happy people stay relatively happy. 50% of your happiness level is determined by genetics according to (Lykken and Tellegen -1996 twin study)
A response tendency that lasts a short time where the person assesses the personal meaning of an event (consciously or not) and this triggers a RESPONSE (physiological, cognitive, behavior). MAY include emotion words such as
JOY, CURIOSITY or SURPRISE, CALM
LOVE not typically included
Thoery by Alice Isen about the effects of Postive Affect.
Facillitates creative problem solving. Matchbook problem.
Broaden & Build Theory
Broaden & build our options, generate resources, skills, friends, health (WHILE NA NARROWS OUR FOCUS)
PA is the antidote to NA
PE broaden one's awareness and encourage novel, varied, and exploratory thoughts and actions. Over time, this broadened behavioral repertoire builds skills and resources.
How does percieved life Satisfaction vary in collectivist vs individualistic countries?
Collectivist societies: satisfaction will depend on whether your ACHIEVED SELF matches with their expectation of your IDEAL self.
Individualistic: self-esteem matters more for satisfaction
Who made the satisfaction with life scale?
What is subjective well being? who defined this?
Cognitive and Affective Evaluation of his or her life
Includes both positive (hi) AND negative emotions (lo) AND life satisfaction (hi)
General VALENCE (positive vs. negative) (e.g., Positive Affect- not specific, can mean any time but more commonly is used to mean trait)
Long lasting feelings, dispositions, how you usually are
Transient, more diffuse state, might last for minutes days, may have not obvious cause "more TRAIT-like...but not always)
Short lived (seconds/minutes), frequently know the source, "STATE- like"
What are the two kinds of smiles?
the "Duchenne smile" : GENUINE, the corners of the mouth turn up and the skin around the corners of your eyes crinkles (the crow's feet). Facial muscles involved in it are difficult to control voluntarily making it HARD TO FAKE.
Standard smile. (think flight attendants), is inauthentic, think politeness vs. inner joy - no eye activity around the corners
What did Harker & Keltner (2001) find out about smiles?
Women with more of a Duchenne smile in their yearbook photo - reported better marriages and marital satisfaction ~ 40 years later.
The FACIAL FEEDBACK hypothesis
The theory that facial movement can influence emotional experience
Strack study: cartoon watching with/without pen in mouth.
Also people with botox less happy less able to smile.
In EMG studies attributing brain to origin of emtion, what parts of the brain are thought to be responsible for positive and negative emotions?
The left prefrontal hemisphere is thought to be POSITIVE EMOTIONS (happiness and joy) while the right prefrontal is thought to be tied to NEGATIVE STATES (disgust, stress).
What are the five big five personality traits?
Extraversion - PA
Conscientiousness - PA
Openness to Experience: PA
Social Comparison Theory (Festinger)
Downward Socail comaprison-look at someone worse off than you, feel better.
Upwards can be good or bad- it can give you inspiration, you can look for similarities, or it can make you feel bad about yourself
Explain the the concepts of ADAPTATION THEORY, CONTRAST and HABITUATION as outlined in the BRICKMAN study of lottery winners and quadraplegic/paraplegics.
Adaption Theory - we all hover around the same typical point of wellbeing BUT this can get thrown off.
Contrast: If an event is extremely salient: other events won't seem as positive or negative as they normally would.
Habituation: thrill or devastation will cease to have impact as they themselves are absorbed into the new baseline
Hedonic Adaptation—Treadmill Theory (Eysenck)
Tendency of humans to quickly return to a relatively stable level of happiness despite major positive or negative events or life changes
Does Lucas 2007 and Deiner et all say SWB has movability?
SWB set points does change over time.
What three things attribute to happiness?
Intentional Activites: 40%
What are intentional activities?
thoughts and behaviors that require effort
What is savoring?
Noticing & relishing positive experiences/ Deliberate EFFORT
Related to mindfulness (being in here & now)
What is emotion focuses coping?
Attempts to understand emotions and express emotions (approach the stressor/cope)
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (Susan Chales (UCI) & Laura Carstensen)
In older age we focus less on negative emotions, engage more deeply with emotional content of days, and especially savor the good suff (e.g., relationships)
Older people have a POSITIVITY BIAS- they remember good stuff more quickly