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Politics of the United States
Chapter 4 Civics
Terms in this set (62)
The Constitution might not have been ratified if the ______ ___ ______ had not been promised?
The Bill of Rights
What do the Bill of Rights do for American citizens?
Place strict limits on what the national government can do
What are civil liberties?
freedoms we have to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair treatment
What does the First Amendment protects what five basic freedoms?
Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom to petition the Government.
What are the freedoms of religion protected under the First Amendment?
You have the freedom to choose what religion you want to be in and you also have the freedom to not be in a religion. The First Amendment also guarantees that the government can not favor a religion or treat people differently because of their religion. Congress is prohibited from establishing a national religion.
What speech protections are under the First Amendment?
We are able to say what's on our minds, in public or private, without the fear of government censorship. Speech is not limited to verbal expression but also protects things like art, music, movies and ideas.
What is censorship?
The practice of banning materials or films merely because they contain alarming or offensive ideas
Freedom of the press ensures?
the American people are exposed to a wide variety of viewpoints and that the government cannot censor the news
What is the freedom to assemble?
We are able to protest, attend meetings, political rallies, public celebrations, as long as they are peaceful. The government may make rules to where they can be but they may not ban them.
What is the freedom to petition the government?
Makes it able for citizens to petition the government. It is a brief, written statement signed by hundreds or thousands of people.
Limits to the First Amendment?
You do not have permission to provoke a riot and you do not have the right to promote violent overthrow of the government. You may not endanger our government or other Americans.
Citizens should use their civil liberties responsibly, which means?
They should not interfere with the rights of others
May protest but?
Not block streets
May criticize government officials but?
Not spread lies that harm a person's reputation
What is slander?
Lies that are spoken
What is libel?
Lies that are printed
T/F. If false tell me why: The First Amendment was created so Americans could do whatever they please.
False: The 1st Amendment was never intended to let the Americans do what they please because unlimited freedom is not possible in a society of many people
What is the major juxtaposition of American society?
how best to balance the call for freedoms verse the call for order
What amendments deal with the right to fair legal treatment?
The fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth.
What is a search warrant?
A court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect's home or business and take specific items as evidence
What rights do you have under the Fourth Amendment?
It protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures. They cannot search your home or take your property without good cause
If law enforcement believes you have committed a crime, what can they do to obtain evidence?
They must ask a judge for a search warrant. These are hard to get. Judges must be convinced that search will turn up evidence or criminal activity.
What rights do you have under the Fifth Amendment?
It protects the rights of people accused of crime, no one can be put on trial for a serious crime without an indictment. Also protects people from double jeopardy, also protects the rights to remain silent, and also means that people can't be forced be forced to testify against themselves. Additionally it keeps the government from bullying us to confess a crime we did not commit. It also protects citizens property rights by limiting government's power of eminent domain.
What is Indictment?
A formal charge by a group of citizens called a grand jury, who review the evidence against the accused
What is double jeopardy?
people who are accused of a crime and judged not guilty may not be put to trial again for the same crime
What is due process?
Following established legal procedures
What is eminent domain?
right of the government to take private property, usually land, for public use
Government may take your land BUT?
Must pay you for a fair price
What rights do you have under the Sixth Amendment?
It gives addition due process rights to people of crimes, it requires that they be told the exact nature of the charges against them. It also guarantees them trial by jury, although they may ask to be tried by only a judge instead, and in a jury trial, the trial must be speedy and public and jurors must be impartial. Accused individuals have the right to hear and question all witnesses against them and they may also be allowed to call witnesses in their own defense. they are all entitled to have a lawyer.
The Supreme Court later ruled that if a person can't afford a lawyer the government must?
They must supply them with a lawyer
What rights do you have under the Eighth Amendment?
prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishment
What is bail?
A)a sum of money used as a security deposit
B)if an accused person comes to trial, the bail is returned
C)if the person fails to appear, the bail is forfeited
The judge decides how much bail a person must pay based on what factors?
A)type of crime committed
B)record of the accused person
C)flight risk- likelihood that the person will appear in court
D)what the person can afford
What does the Second Amendment do?
It gives the right to keep and bear arms to the people of America
What argument do anti gun-rights supporters make about the Second Amendment?
Only "Well-regulated militia" may carry arms.
What argument do pro gun rights supporters make about the Second Amendment?
They feel ALL Americans may carry arms without interference of the government
What have the Courts said about the Second Amendment?
They said that the government can pass laws to regulate, but not prevent, the possession of weapons
What does the Third Amendment do?
It prohibits soldiers from temporarily residing in private homes during peacetime without getting the permission and consent of the owner.
In times of war, quartering can only be authorized by
What are civil cases?
lawsuits that involve disagreements between people rather than crimes
What does the Seventh Amendment guarantee?
The right to a jury trial but does not require it in civil cases
What does the Ninth Amendment do?
Makes it clear that citizens have other rights beyond those listed in the constitution. You have the right to privacy and the right to privacy to medical records
What does the Tenth Amendment do?
It prevents congress and the president from becoming too strong. Gives reserved powers with means that any power that the constitution does not specifically give to the national government are reserved to the states or the people.
The Bill of Rights were passed to
safeguard individual liberties\the rights guaranteed to all Americans have not always been applied equally and fairly
The Bill of Rights were designed to limit the power of the national government or the state government?
Since states have not always been bound by the bill of rights, they used reserved powers to
Pass laws that violated civil liberties
Examples of state laws that violated civil liberties:
Women not being able to vote, African Americans being enslaved, and school segregation.
The 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments were passed after the Civil War to
Extend civil liberties to African Americans
What does the 13th Amendment do?
It outlawed slavery in the United States and freed hundreds of thousands of African Americans. It also outlawed any source of forced labor, except as punishment for a crime, it also gave congress power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation
What are some of the black codes passed after the Civil War?
Kept them from certain jobs, limited property rights, and denied them rights to vote.
The Fourteenth Amendment was passed to
Combat those "Black Codes"
What does the Fourteenth Amendment do?
It defined a U.S. citizen as anyone born or naturalized in the United States, required every state to grant citizens "equal protection under the laws".
The equal protection clause has been extended to
Include women, disabled, and other groups whose rights have not been protected fairly. It forbids state governments from interfering with the "privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Also forbade state governments from taking an individual's "life, liberty, or property, without due process of the law"
What is the nationalization of the Bill of Rights?
Made the Bill of Rights binding for the states
What does the Fifteenth Amendment do?
No state may take away a person's voting rights on the basis of race, color, or previous enslavement. Aimed to guarantee suffrage to African Americans.
What is suffrage?
The right to vote
Even though the 15th Amendment granted African American men the right to vote, some states
Found ways to keep African Americans away from the polls
What did the Seventeenth Amendment do?
Allowed voters to elect senators directly. Under Article 1, people elect the House of Representatives but state legislators choose the senate.
What did the 19th amendment do?
It protected women's right to vote in national and state elections
What did the 23rd Amendment allow?
Allowed for the residents of the Districts of Columbia to vote for president and vice president
What did the 24th Amendment make?
It made poll taxes illegal in national elections
What was the minimum age for voting?
21 years old
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