98 terms

BOT 651 Midterm 2

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elements of new conservation biology
spans previous gaps of applied science, management across genetic and theoretical data. early approaches largely anthropocentric, interdisciplinary
conservation biology
is an attempt to maintain normal evolutionary processes within normally functional ecological settings
early human impact
ancient greece SW asia mediterranean "land of perpetual shade"
europe
destroyed by the 1700s
romantic-transcendental conservation ethic
view that nature is a work of god-a temple- not just for human/economic benefit
resource conservation ethic
utilitarian via splitting between useful and non useful
leopolds evolutionary ecological land ethic
view that we must understand ecosystems as a whole and considered an "equilibrium view" rooted in evolutionary ecology
1960s-1970s
(timeline) biologists wake up to fact that entire ecosystems were disappearing, largely utilitarian movements and need for ecosystem approach evident
1980
(timeline) Soule and Wilcox publish conservation biology: an evolutionary perspective and is major stepping stone
1985
(timeline) society for conservation biology (and their journal conservation biology) esablished and provide a venue for evolutionary and genetic approaches
evolutionary change
(three guiding principles) unifying theme throughout biology, explains origins and biodiversity
dynamic ecology
(three guiding principles) ecological systems are rarely at equilibrium, don't stay that way long. relevant to preserve design
human presence
(three guiding principles) need to consider needs to educate/build pride in local habitats
genetic diversity
(variation across life) determines every level of biodiversity, number of genes range widely, understanding is essential to understanding gene flow
population level diversity
(variation across life) describes in part the nature and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations
species level diversity
(variation across life) species richness, fundamental units of evolution, ESA and CITES examples
biological species concept
"classic" (dobzhansky mayr) concept that groups unable to interbreed must be separate species
phylogenetic species concept
(species concept) only requires the group to be monophyletic to be a species
evolutionary species concept
"real concept" (simpson wiley and others) "a single lineage of ancestral-descendant populations of organisms which maintains its identity from other such lineages"
evolutionarily significant units
term used by ESA for protection of subspecies
biological communities
species+interactions with each other and the environment
alpha richness
number of species in a given area
beta richness
change in species composition
gamma richness
larger scale beta richness
keystone species
type of species that is incredibly important to the current food chain/web
palearctic
biogeographic region (1 of 8) colllld
afrotropic
biogeographic region (2 of 8) sweaty
indo-malay
biogeographic region (3 of 8) island sweaty
australasian
biogeographic region (4 of 8) still a colony
oceania
biogeographic region (5 of 8) watery
nearctic
biogeographic region (6 of 8) NE cold?
neotropical
biogeographic region (7 of 8) new generation of sweaty
antarctic
biogeographic region (8 of 8) big ass burrrrr
world wildlife fund
(2001) recognized 867 terrestrial ecoregions
early cambrian
explosion of speciation (550-600 MYA)
permian
(250 MYA) 95% of marine, 75% of terrestrial species lost
endemism
localization of species to a particular area
species area curve
S=cA^z where S is number of species, A is the area and c or z are constants
theory of island biogeography
macarthur and wilson (1960s) predict number of species based on island size
primary productivity
primary source of energy available to organisms
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
disturbance by changes in a biotic or biotic environment at medium levels can be beneficial overall for promoting evenness
humans
niggest threat both direct and indirect to biodiversity
habitat degradation
pollution, change in native habitat, introduced species, fragmentation, and complete destruction
overexploitation
logging, fishing, medicines, pet trade may elimate species or reduce numbers to the point of genetic inviability
introduced species
sometimes a component to habitat degradation, where an introduced plant takes over and changes habitat
human induced climate change
previous mass extinctions also tied closely to climate change (threats to biodiversity)
coral bleaching
corals die from climate change
extirpation
local extinction
1987 taylors biocentrism
all organisms inherently valuable, even individuals
1994 rolston
added more of a moral complex dimension, aggregates are worth more than species, for example, sentient beings are worth more than non sentient
project definition
step one of CBA
impact classification
step two of CBA
conversion to monetary terms
step three of CBA
assemble all information
step four of CBA
sensitivity analysis
step five of CBA
precautionary principle
you can't predict all negative impacts
multi criterion
meta analysis for optimal solution
rivet hypothesis
once you take away enough units of ecology, all of it falls apart
habitat degradation
biggest threat to biodiversity? (action)
US and UK
who uses most hectares per person? (two countries)
africa california chile
three countries with lots of species cumulatively
africa
out of the three countries with lots of speces, which had the most beta richness?
indo-west pacific
which area is a marine diversity hotspot?
equator
Where does most diversity occur latitude wise?
degradation
Where some species are effected, but doesn't have to be all, and also does not have to be permanent. A type of loss.
loss
Where all or most species are effected, recovery time if even possible takes a long time. A type of loss.
habitat conversion
Where one type of biome is changed by human interactions into another
aral sea
Case study in Kazakstan where a body of water was effected by rivers being diverted for agricultural uses. Salt became concentrated in the water. Especially effected cotton farms
ecological footprint
the amount of land it theoretically requires to sustain the lifestyle of an average citizen
2007
In what year did the UN estimate that humans used 50% more resources than sustainable worldwide.
food miles
How long in distance that a food product travels from harvest to consumer
compact living
the concept of urban sprawl, building up not out
ecoprocurement
the evaluation of use of goods used by local governments, ecologically AND economically: often saves money and encourages local production
kenya
What country used conservation to save butterflies by encouraging ecotourism and trade.
light
What is the form of pollution that is the example for Florida Sea turtle hatchlings?
1990 clean air act
has helped a lot allowing growing awareness, and economic incentives to companies and consumers
eutrophication
initial burst of organismal abundance, then death and rapid decomposition
conservation international
Identified 34 hotspots of biodiversity with combination of high endemism and species riuchness that are losing habitat fast
world wildlife fund
came up with the "global 200" ecoregions
world conservation society
vowed to protect the last 10% of ecoregion or biome least affected by humans
critically endangered
CRI 50% converted
endangered
CRI 40%
vulnerable
CRI 20%
debt for nature
generates credits that can be used as tax writeoffs, PR, or purchased by conservation agencies
fragmentation
reduction of habitat that breaks into isolated patches
isolation
lack of gene flow among individuals that occupy that type of habitat (and perhaps key species interactions prevented ect)
habitat shredding
maintains strips of habitat, often with some degree of connection, may maintain metapopulation structure
metapopulation
complex set of natural populations (subpopulations), that have varying degrees of dispersal/gene flow, spatially and temporally.
initial exclusion
species with very limited ranges/requirements may simply disappear because they now have nowhere to go
crowding
reduced habitat area leads to individuals being more tightly packed
island effects
reduced area may lead to reduced number of individuals of a species, or the species altogether, along with reduced richness overall
relaxation of richness
start with high richness, then get fragmentation and isolation; number of species drops due to crowding, resource limitations, catastrophies, ect (or richness may even increase, but due to invasion of "weedy" species
land bridge hypothesis
for oceanic islands, have greater species richness for islands periodically connected to one another and/or mainland
ecological trap
high concentration of natural edge species: attracts parasites and diseases
habitat matrices
may have natural patches that differ from surroundings, and many in close proximity may support individuals or populations whereas isolated ones can't
allee effect
below some threshold population size/density, plants may no longer be attractive to pollinators (or, more generally, as popoulation size decreases, average fitness decreases)
allee effect
below some threshold population size/density, plants may no longer be attractive to pollinators (or, more generally, as popoulation size decreases, average fitness decreases)
allee effect
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