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Adolescent Psychology--Identity and Self-esteem

STUDY
PLAY
Self esteem
High or Low?? (rank order across people is generally same as childhood; evidence that it decreases early childhood)
More unstable day to day
Social feedback become very important
Domains of Self-Esteem
Individuals tend to focus on different....(Athletics, Academics, Physical Appearance, Conduct, Relationships)
Graph
Sex Differences in Various Domains of Self-Esteem: Males higher in social; scholastic; appearance; athletics
Females Higher in Conduct
Which domain closely related overall?
Physical appearance
Family Issue
Harmony in home; shared activities; clear rules/ expectations and sticking to them; freedom within limits; providing help when needed
Parenting style?? Authoritative
Cultural Issues
Lower SES = lower self esteem (positive correlation)
Attending school where a minority related to lower self-esteem
Highest self-esteem
African Americans
*support within community
*focus on strengths
*increased ethnic identity
Example
Kevin, a male adolescent, and Jessica, a female adolescent, are from the same SES background..How might their self esteem differ based on the information?

Gender(answers based on what was on the graph) conduct; appearance; athleticism
High Self-Esteem
"real" based on real efforts and behaviors; helped by peer acceptance, parental approval, and school achievement; Low self-esteem = depression and relationship probelms

Related to alcohol use; why???? POPULARITY
Can it be too high?
Can lead to relationship problems; problems coping with negative events; inaccurate attributions

*each of these can also apply to low self esteem
Addressing....
Acknowledge basic worth; make evaluation based on actual efforts; small, attainable, short-term goals; acknowledge perspective on time, relationships...; accurate distinction b/t internal/external locus of control; help challenge irrational beliefs/feedback