Who/What: Cultural, social and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, NY
When: from end of WWII to mid 1930s
Where: Harlem, NYC
Brief Discussion of History: The black population of New York City doubled during the decade. As a result, Harlem, a neighborhood at the northern end of Manhattan, became a center for Afro-centric art, music, poetry, and politics; Revived by the wartime migration and fired up by the white violence of the postwar riots, urban blacks developed a strong cultural expression in the 1920s that came to be known as the Harlem Renaissance. In this rediscovery of black culture, African American artists and writers formulated an independent black culture and encouraged racial pride, rejecting any emulation of white American culture.
Historical Significance: Created new Af-Am/black culture and new identity that differentiated them from whites
Who/What: the Second Ku Klux Klan was a nationwide movement that expressed racism, nativism, anti-Semitism, and anti-Catholicism
When: Resurgence in 1920s and 1950s
Brief Discussion of History: The Ku Klux Klan, which originated in the mid-1800s, had a resurgence in the 1920s, flourishing as it stressed opposition to Catholicism, Judaism, and immigrants; this 2nd KKK began wearing the white costumes and burned crosses. In 1950, the group had another resurgence as several small unconnected groups began using the name. Classified as a hate group, it used violence and murder to oppose the Civil Rights movement.
Historical Significance: They're the KKK, they suck and everyone knows that they're terrible
Who/What: Corrupt but beloved Louisiana senator; nn Kingfish
When: 1893-1935 (assassinated)
Brief Discussion of History: Louisiana governor and senator who promoted his platform "Share Our Wealth" as a solution to the Great Depression. Share the Wealth was designed to provide a better standard of living to all Americans by spreading the nation's wealth among everyone. There was a proposed limit to personal wealth through taxes, both high and low limits to wages, graduated levy taxes, and methods to distribute revenue within government and public institutions. He advocated free higher education and vocational training, pensions for the elderly, benefits and health care for veterans, and a yearly spending stipend for families. He felt it was the government's duty to help the poor, and by the end of 1935 there were over 27,000 Share Our Wealth programs. Roosevelt's second New Deal was greatly influenced by Long's platform, with the creation of Social Security, Works Progress Administration, and other government projects to help the impoverished Americans.
Historical Significance: Posed threat to Roosevelt, had not been assassinated, would have been serious rival for FDR in '36 election
Who/What: the code name given to the research project that developed the atomic bomb
When: ≈ 1940s
Where: Los Alamos, New Mexico
Brief Discussion of History: Albert Einstein, who had emigrated to the United States in 1933 to escape the Nazis, urged President Roosevelt to launch an American atomic research project, and Roosevelt agreed to do so, with reservations. In late 1941, the program received its code name: the Manhattan Project. Located at Los Alamos, New Mexico, the Manhattan Project ultimately employed 150,000 people and cost some $2 billion. In July 1945, the project's scientists successfully tested the first atomic bomb.
Historical Significance: First fussing with nuclear weapons; US is crafting a nuclear weapon and not even the VP knows about it! Everything about it is crazy
Who/What: The order given by President Roosevelt to relocate and detain people of Japanese ancestry, including those who were American citizens
When: February 19, 1942
Brief Discussion of History: Executive Order 9066, signed by Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, gave the army power to remove people from "military areas" to prevent sabotage or espionage. The army then used this authority to relocate people of Japanese ancestry living along the Pacific coast of Washington, Oregon, and California, as well as in parts of Arizona, to internment camps in the American interior
Historical Significance: FDR basically signing off on Japanese concentration camps; that's crazy, unconstitutional and unamerican.
Who/What: Blacks sat at segregated lunch counter in protest/to raise awareness
When: February 1, 1960
Where: Greensboro, North Carolina
Brief Discussion of History: On February 1, 1960, four sophomores at the North Carolina Agricultural & Technical College in Greensboro entered the local Woolworth's and sat at the lunch counter. The lunch counter was segregated, and they were refused service as they knew they would be. They had specifically chosen Woolworth's, because it was a national chain and was thus believed to be especially vulnerable to negative publicity. Over the next few days, more protesters joined the four sophomores. Hostile whites responded with threats and taunted the students by pouring sugar and ketchup on their heads. The successful six-month-long Greensboro sit-in initiated the student phase of the African American civil rights movement and, within two months, the sit-in movement had spread to fifty-four cities in nine states
Historical Significance: Shed light to racism that prevailed in our country; became big, widespread example of Civil Rights movement
Who/What: Letter written by MLK after he was jailed addressing white clergymen who claimed it "wasn't time" for the Civil Rights movement
Where: Birmingham, Alabama
Brief Discussion of History: The campaign in Birmingham that began in April and extended into the fall of 1963 attracted the most notice, however, when a peaceful protest was met with violence by police, who attacked demonstrators, including children, with fire hoses and dogs. The world looked on in horror as innocent people were assaulted and thousands arrested. King himself was jailed on Easter Sunday, 1963, and, in response to the pleas of white clergymen for peace and patience, he penned one of the most significant documents of the struggle—"Letter from a Birmingham Jail." In the letter, King argued that African Americans had waited patiently for more than three hundred years to be given the rights that all human beings deserved; the time for waiting was over.
Historical Significance: Defended movement and strengthened movement by raising awareness of unjust treatment of blacks