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NUTR 222 Lecture 12
Terms in this set (97)
Roles of water
-carries nutrients and wastes
-part of metabolic reactions
-solvent for many nutrients
-maintains structure of large molecules
-maintains body temperature
-maintains blood volume
-acts as lubricant & cushion
Water imbalance: dehydration
more water output than input
Symptoms= thirst, weakness, exhaustion, delirious, eventually death
Water imbalance: water intoxication
consuming too much water
Symptoms= severe headache, confusion, convulsions, coma, eventually death
how do we lose water in the body?
intestinal tract (feces), breathing, sweating, kidney filtering (urine)
Sources of water?
liquids, foods(a large amount of water comes from food), metabolic water
Partially dissolved salts become _________.
Salt that dissolves in water and dissociates into charged particles called ions
-help maintain acid/base balance, first line of defense
-vital to the life of all cells
-salts determine where fluids go: water goes to where the highest concentration of salts are
examples of extra/intra-cellular
extracellular(outside the cell)= sodium, chloride
intracellula(inside the cell)r= potassium
electrolytes act as __________.
can add acid or base
what is the primary organ for acid/base balance?
kidney:because they determine how many electrolytes come out of the body
skin, lungs, GI tract
The Major Minerals
Not because they are important, but because we need larger amounts of them
-structure of bones
-nerve transmission & muscle contraction
-shape of proteins
major minerals in fluid balance
sodium, chloride, potassium (important for electrolyte balance)
major minerals in structure of bones
calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
major minerals in nerve transmission
sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium
major minerals in energy metabolism
major minerals in shape of proteins
roles of sodium
Principle extracellular ion
-regulates extracellular fluid volume
-muscle contraction/nerve transmission
high salt consumption is associated with what?
high blood pressure
table salt is worse than ______ or ________.
reducing sodium intake = a reduced ________ intake.
high in fruits and veggies, high in low fat milk, whole grains, nuts, poultry, and fish
low in red meat, butter, and other high fat foods
sources of sodium
fruits, vegetables, low fat milk, whole grains, nuts, poultry, fish, low red meat
to lower blood pressure....
dash diet + reduced sodium intake
chloride is a major _________ ________ ion.
roles of chloride
-part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach (protects against bacteria)
-fluid & electrolyte & acid-base balance
sources of chloride
potassium is a principle ________ ________ ion.
roles of potassium
-fluid & electrolyte balance
-keeping heart beat steady
starvation or loosing too much potassium (diabetic acidosis: urinate a lot, drugs: diuretics or steroids or cathartics)
kidney stones, increased blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, more salt sensitive, loosing calcium
sources of potassium
what is the most abundant mineral in the body?
99% of calcium is where?
in the bones
what calcium sticks to to form bone
you have the highest bone mass at what age?
in your 20's
-bone mass slowly declines the rest of your life
-women maintain their bone mass a little bit better, rapidly loose bone at 50
roles of calcium in body fluids
-1% of all calcium
-transmits nerve impulses
-helps with blood clotting
-regulates muscle contractions
-secretes hormones, enzymes, neurotransmitters
Calcium balance: blood is too high in calcium
-it deposits the calcium into the bones
calcium rigor: muscles contract and don't retract
what happens if the blood is too low in calcium
#1 intestine will absorb more calcium
#2 bone will release more calcium
#3 kidneys escrete less calcium
can go into calcium tetany: uncontrolled muscle contraction
bones fracture under common everyday stresses
-affects 40 million people
Causes: inadequate calcium in the growing years, 15% bone loss after menopause, many genetic and environmental factors
Prevention: adequate bone minerals, doing physical activity helps maintain bone structure
dash diet is high in what?
calcium, magnesium, potassium
-helps with hypertension
sources for calcium
milk products, fortified products, vegetables
what is the 2nd most abundant mineral in the body
85% of phosphorus is found where?
bones and teeth
what mineral is found in all body tissues and necessary for growth?
sources for phosphorus
roles of magnesium
-critical to the operation of hundreds of enzymes
-helps muscles relax
deficiency of magnesium
frequent diarrhea, vomiting, alcohol abuse, protein and energy malnutrition, use of diuretics
-will get tetany: uncontrolled muscle contraction
toxicity of magnesium
abusing laxatives or antacids
sources of magnesium
dark green veggies, whole grains, nuts, legumes
______ starts muscle contractions and _______ stops it.
roles of sulfate
-body needed to make sulfur containing compounds
-helps shape protein strands (hair perm)
iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, cobalt, manganese, fluoride, chromium
-amount in body would hardly fill a teaspoon
-each has a vital role
-deficiency of excess can be fatal
-Part of every living cell
-Needed to make new cells, amino acids, hormones, & neurotransmitters
mineral in hemoglobin/myoglobin that helps carry oxygen
hemoglobin=carries oxygen in red blood cells
myoglobin=carries oxygen in muscle cells
only 10-15% of dietary _______ is absorbed.
what is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide? Persons at risk? Causes?
Infants, toddlers, pregnant women, women at child bearing age
Causes: blood loss, inadequate intake, high consumption of iron poor food
(iron deficiency) inability to carry oxygen properly in the blood
symptoms: fatigue, weakness, headaches, apathy
(iron deficiency) appetite for inedible things, weird cravings like clay, washing detergent, ice
Assessment of deficiency
Stages of iron deficiency:
-iron stores diminish
-transport iron decreases
-hemoglobin production declines: hemoglobin levels and hematocrit (late markers of iron deficiency)
Sub clinically anemic
Many women and some children
Partially iron deficient
Not anemic, but iron stores are not where they need to be
Iron overload: hemochromatosis
-body absorbs too much iron
-Results in tissue damage, infections, diabetes, liver cancer, heart disease, arthritis
-Will be fatal
Treatment: low iron diet, get frequent blood transfusions
what are the 2 types of iron in foods
heme and non-heme
only in animal products
in vegetables and a little meat
NOT very absorbable
diets high in ______ iron are better.
iron absorption is enhanced by _________.
iron absorption is impaired by...
-tannin found in coffee and tea and wine
-calcium in milk products
-phytates in plant products
what is required as a cofactor by more than 100 enzymes?
zinc performs tasks in the...
eyes, liver, kidneys, muscle, bones, male reproduction
what is essential to wound healing, taste perception, sperm and fetal development?
what is needed to produce active vitamin A?
a zinc deficiency can result in?
dwarfism (when women are deficient in zinc while pregnant)
only if in high amounts of supplements
foods in high proteins
what mineral is an antioxidant?
what has a role in activating the thyroid hormone?
What may help in cancer prevention?
increased risk of heart disease
vomiting, diarrhea, hair and nail loss, skin lesions, nervous system problems
sources of selenium
seafood, meats, whole grains
iodine deficiency while pregnant
cretinism (birth defect)
iodine deficiency as an adult
what is an integral part of thyroid hormone?
toxicity of iodine
can cause enlarged thyroid gland
sources of iodine
iodized salt, sea food, veggies grown in iodine rich soil
-a part of many enzymes
-vital role is to help cells use iron
-needed in many reactions related to respiration & energy metabolism
sources of copper
legumes, sea food, whole grains
what mineral toxicity is associated with brain damage?
what is a cofactor for many enzymes?
sources of manganese
nuts, whole grains, leafy green veggies
helps create enamel in teeth
(teeth are harder than bone)
(too much fluoride=toxicity) darkening of teeth
-this is why toddlers tooth paste does not have fluoride
what is a fluoride deficiency?
sources of fluoride
tap water, fluorinated tooth paste (which we don't eat)
-participates in carbohydrate & lipid metabolism
-enhances activity of insulin
Sources of chromium
Other trace minerals
Who needs supplements?
-low energy intakes
-infants, women of child-bearing age, pregnant women
-inadequate milk intakes
-certain diseases, injections, or injuries
-taking meds that interfere with nutrient use
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