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MICRO Unit 3
Terms in this set (202)
The body's first line of defense occurs at body _____
nonspecific defenses: first line
non-specific immune response
nonspecific defenses: second line
keratin (hair & skin cells)
THIS makes a cell less hospitable. It takes up room and displaces water.
only pathogens that possess special adaptations can survive the enzymes produced by the phagocytes
How does living inside the phagocyte (white blood cell) provide bacteria protection against phagocytosis?
traps pathogens in mucus
mucus creates barrier
expels pathogens (cough, sneeze, diarrhea)
How is movement of bodily fluids protective?
lysozyme (an enzyme that destroys the bacterial cell wall)
Sweat, tears, and saliva have THIS as a protective measure
hypertonic (keeps things from growing)
Sweat is highly salty, creating THIS environment
cells close together
sloughing (reduces microbe numbers)
keratin (little water in cells)
trap microbes in mucus
4 ways skin and mucous membranes defense against infection
(fatty acids in sebum in)
(acidic environment created by normal flora of)
Name 3 places in the body where acidic environments serve as a chemical defense
blood and nervous system
THESE are the only places in your body without normal flora
*-use all resources
-produce substances that are harmful to pathogens
-alter conditions that affect survival of pathogens (microbial antagonism)*
How do normal flora provide defense against pathogenic bacterial species?
natural killer cells
There are several non-specific processes to kill the pathogen before it begins multiplying. Intracellular:
There are several non-specific processes to kill the pathogen before it begins multiplying. Extracellular:
membrane attack complexes (MAC) (sticks to the membrane of foreign things, so it's helpful only for cells which have a membrane)
Complement proteins form THESE which cause lysis
4 phases of phagocytosis
THIS is the chemical attraction of phagocytes to a particular location (a red flag for the immune system)
components of damaged tissue cells,
Chemotactic chemicals that attract phagocytes include...
3 chemical signals of chemotaxis
production of M proteins or slippery capsules
Because of certain microbial defenses (such as THESE), adherence of the phagocyte cell membrane to the surface of the microbe may be difficult.
opsonization, opsonins (These will often just be in the environment and will stick to the pathogen whenever it crosses their path)
Binding to the surface of the microbe and then interacting with receptors on phagocytes to promote phagocytosis is a process is called THIS. Proteins are called THAT.
Adherence or Attachment
Coating the surface of a microbe with complement proteins and antibody proteins helps phagocytosis. THIS process is called _____
THIS is the process when the phagocyte engulfs the microbe. The plasma membrane surrounds the microbe and pinches off around the microbe, forming a vesicle (sac).
THESE phagocytes are like first responders and do surveillance. They can phagocytize, but macrophages are much better at it.
THESE phagocytes are not as common or as active as the other two. They have a parasite response, attacking dust and allergies sometimes because they have nothing to do.
macrophages eosinophils neutrophils
Major phagocytes include THESE 3
THIS is when the microbe-containing vesicle fuses with a lysosome (a vesicle of digestive enzymes). Then the microorganism is expelled.
After digestion, the microorganism is expelled from the phagocyte by THIS process.
species of Mycobacterium, thick waxy capsule
It's important to know that not all microorganisms are killed by phagocytosis. For example, THESE are not killed because of THIS. These bacteria actually set up residence inside phagocytes.
phagocytes (dead and alive), damaged tissue, pathogens (dead and alive)
What is pus?
Chemically attracting phagocytes
(coat it with some opsonin)
If a bacterium has a slippery, slimy outer capsule, how can a phagocyte phagocytize it?
The process of coating microbes with complement proteins or antibodies to facilitate phagocytosis is called THIS
What event triggers the hypothalamus to increase the body's temperature?
What compound produced by viral-infected cells serves as a red flag or warning to other cells to produce antiviral compounds?
activation of inflammatory response*
List the 4 functions of the complement system.
natural killer cells
THESE do not need to recognize a specific antigen before swinging into action.
natural killer cells
THESE can target tumor cells and a wide variety of pathogens
THESE signal natural killer cells to kill certain things
secrete antiviral proteins so they are not infected (they also stop performing endocytosis)
When an uninfected cell gets a signal from an interferon, they do THIS
Cell damage, complement proteins
What activates the inflammatory response?
by increasing temperature
When macrophages eat pathogenic cells, they release chemicals which move around and alert your body, specifically your brain, to the infection. How does the brain respond?
growth of some microbes
Heat from fever inhibits...
heart rate (so WBCs, etc., are delivered to infection sites more rapidly)
B cell proliferation
T cell proliferation
Heat increases THESE things in a fever
stressing the organism, stopping logarithmic growth
A fever may seem minor, as it only increases the temperature a few degrees, but this can help by...
Phagocytes secrete THESE, which go to the brain, which then secretes THOSE, which reset the thermostat to a higher temperature.
increased blood flow to the area (from vasodilation of blood vessels)
Why is redness a symptom of the inflammatory response?
increased chemical reactions in area (breaking bonds, destroying things, releasing energy, etc.)
Why is warmth a symptom of the inflammatory response?
more fluid leaving blood vessels (they become more permeable)
Why is swelling a symptom of the inflammatory response?
swelling (which pushes on nerves), toxins produced by bacteria, prostaglandin release
Why is pain/irritation a symptom of the inflammatory response?
What are the 4 major symptoms of the inflammatory response?
to make blood vessels more permeable so antibodies, complement protein, and white blood cells can leave the blood vessels and enter the interstitial spaces where the pathogens are.
What is a secondary purpose for blood vessels becoming leaky during the inflammatory response?
antibody, white blood cells, complement protein, etc
Blood vessels become more leaky during an inflammatory response in order to deliver more blood and components to the area. What are the components?
Deliver more blood and its components to the area
What's the purpose of the blood vessels becoming leaky during the inflammatory response?
MHC markers (self markers)
THESE are among the surface proteins on your own body cells and usually ignored by your immune system.
THESE are foreign markers that trigger an immune response
non immune nucleated cells (99% of your cells)
MHC proteins Class I (MHC I)
macrophage, dendritic, B cells (APCs)
THESE 3 are examples of MHC proteins Class II (MHC II)
Antigens can be _____ or large ____. These have distinct configurations that trigger immune responses.
What kind of molecule is an antibody?
Antibodies are mainly produced by what type of leukocyte?
What are the main (general) targets of the antibody mediated immune response?
Antibody-mediated immune response aka
What are the main (general) targets of the cell mediated (killer T cells) immune response?
antigen presenting cell
What does APC stand for?
Dendritic cell, macrophage, B cell
3 specific APCs
antigen presenting cells
THESE eat and destroy an invader, then take a piece of what they ate and display it on the outside of the cell.
When your body comes by a new pathogen it's never encountered before, it takes THIS long for an immune response
THESE pick the antibody they're going to make and stick with it.
infected cell, not pathogen
Cytotoxic "killer" T cells will kill THIS, not THAT
Ag-MHC marker complex
After phagocytosis, what is displayed on the surface of the dendritic cell?
T cell receptors
Helper T cells display THESE on their surfaces
Ag-MHC marker complexes
In the antibody mediated response, T cell receptors bind to THESE on the surfaces of activated B cells & dendritic cells
Plasma cells, memory B cells
Activated B cells will divide into what 2 populations of cells?
Helper T cells help our immune system to create...
Helper T cells
THESE stimulate the rapid division of activated B cells and cytotoxic T cells by producing interleukins.
Helper T cell interleukin
THESE are also called activated helper T cell signals
Helper T cell interleukin (activated helper T cell signals)
What causes activated B cells to divide?
Memory B & T cells (these are a major difference in specific and nonspecific defenses)
THESE are produced during a first encounter with a specific pathogen. They circulate freely and respond rapidly to any subsequent attacks by the same pathogen
cell markers (which is why it's much easier to donate blood than it is to donate organs)
THESE are on every cell except RBCs
Body cells have proteins on the outside of them called THIS. They mark that cell as "self" (not foreign).
Memory B cells will later be involved in a _____immune response
proteins produced by B cells that specifically bind an antigen
Antibodies aren't cells, they are actually ____
any characteristic on a foreign object that shows it be foreign
immobilization (bind to flagella)
activation of complement system
What are the 5 functions of antibodies?
neutralization (role of antibody)
the binding of Ab with Ag blocks or neutralizes the damaging effect of some bacterial toxins and prevents attachment of some viruses to body cells.
If Ab forms against cilia or flagella of motile bacteria, the Ab-Ag complex may cause the bacteria to lose their motility. This causes...
agglutination (clumping together)
Because antibodies have two or more sites for binding to Ag, the Ab-Ag reaction may crosslink pathogens to one another, causing THIS, which enhances phagocytosis.
complement proteins (activation of complement system)
THESE can be 1) chemotactic to WBCs, 2) cause lysis of microbe, 3) act as opsonins, and 4) activate the inflammatory response.
Immunoglobulin (another name for antibody)
What does Ig stand for?
Cytotoxic T cell
What is the major lymphocyte in the cell-mediated response?
Infected host cells that are presenting antigen on their MHC I
What are the targets of Cytotoxic T cells?
They already just happened to have the right antibody. (Ex. Genetically, you have a B cell that makes an ebola antibody. It will just be bored if you're not exposed to ebola)
Your B cells do not produce the right antibody in response to antigen. Actually, THIS is how it works.
destruction of pathogen
Humoral immunity: Antibodies produced by B cells bind to pathogen, THIS results.
general inflammation response
When a pathogen enters the body, it elicits...
THIS causes the dendritic cell to make and release interleukin signals.
phagocytize it, process it, and put antigen on surface
A pathogen enters the body, the body has a general inflammation response, and then dendritic cells do THIS
has already entered the cytoplasm of a host cell
Antibodies can't bind to antigen if the invader...
natural killer cells, cytotoxic T cells
Both THESE and THOSE kill infected host cells via perforins and granzymes.
natural killer cells
THESE kill nonspecifically based on interferon presentation on host cell
killer T cells
THESE kill based on specific antigen being presented on the MHC I of the host cell
function of perforins
Poke a hole in the infected host cell to allow the granzyme to enter the cells and kill it.
more than one Y
The basic structure of an antibody is a Y-shaped molecule; some antibodies are composed of ...
In an antibody, the antigen-binding site is folded into a groove, which _____ with the antigen
Second Exposure to the same pathogen leads to a response that is _____ and _____ than primary response.
proliferate (no helper T cell needed in this process)
In second exposure, memory cells immediately _____ upon second exposure
Cell mediated immunity
Response against viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens that have already penetrated host cells.
replicate and spread to other cells
In cell mediated immunity, the host cells are killed by cytotoxic/killer T cells before the pathogens...
cell mediated immunity
THIS system is also the primary responder to cancer cells (wrong proteins on surface) and rejecting transplanted tissue (looks like self MHC I + antigen).
THESE, which are secreted by an activated helper T cell, will stimulate a cytotoxic T cells to proliferate and make a memory cytotoxic T cell.
natural killer cells cytotoxic T cells
Both of THESE kill virally infected cells and cancer cells.
Cytotoxic T cells
THESE kill those cells that have the MHC I+specific antigen complex
natural killer cells
THESE are activated by interferon, cytokines to kill all sick cells, not MHC-specific.
antigen binding site
a & b
Name some internal and external body surfaces that are inhabited by normal flora.
the microbes are present
Differentiate between contamination, infection, and disease. Contamination -
THIS does not always cause THAT
*-multiplication of any parasitic organism within or upon the host's body
-growth of normal flora is usually not considered an infection
-infection does not always cause disease (for example, a person can be HIV+, meaning they are infected with the virus, but may not have AIDS (the disease))
-usually by the time you "know" you have an infection, it has progressed to the disease stage*
disturbance in state of health, changes in the host that interfere with normal function
What is a nosocomial infection?
Give 4 examples of environmental reservoirs.
microbe that causes a specific disease
Bacteria that can invade deeper tissues are called
living inside the phagocyte
3 mechanisms that provide bacteria protection against phagocytosis.
THESE make bacteria slippery and hard for wbc's to phagocytize; some bacteria are virulent only if they produce one
THESE interfere with phagocytosis by producing M proteins (hairlike projections on the surface of its cell wall which makes them prickly). Because of these projections, these invaders can be phagocytized only if antibodies bind to the bacteria, masking the M proteins.
develops rapidly and runs its course quickly (ex. Cold, Flu, food poisoning)
develops more slowly, is usually less severe, and persists for a long period (hepatitis, mono)
confined to a specific area
generalized infection; affects most of the body
pathogens are present in and multiply in the blood
follows a primary infection
(ex. Sinusitis - a bacterial infection following a cold, Pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients)
secondary infection that results from the destruction of normal microflora and often follows the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics
caused by several species of organisms present at the same time
disease spreads from one host to another (ex. Flu virus)
diseases that spread
from one host to another
incubation period, prodromal phase
In THESE stages, a disease or pathogen is almost impossible to diagnose
THIS is the tipping point in a disease where your immune system starts winning
THIS is when distinct symptoms start to arise
all of them (moreso when infectious agents are higher, but technically the whole time)
In THESE phases, you are contagious to others
time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms
prodromal phase (prodromos=forerunner)
short period during which nonspecific, often mild, symptoms such as malaise and headache sometimes appear. You feel like you're coming down with something.
period during which the individual experiences the typical signs and symptoms of the disease. The battle between pathogens and host defenses is at its height during this stage
symptoms begin to subside as the host defenses and the effects of treatment, if being administered, finally overcome the pathogen
tissues are repaired, healing takes place, and the body regains strength and recovers. Individuals no longer have disease symptoms, but they still may be able to transmit pathogens to others
There are THIS many nosocomial infections each year
Types of infections common in hospitals
artificially acquired active
A person receives an oral polio vaccine made from weakened polio viruses. This vaccine offers _____ immunity.
naturally acquired active
A person gets the chicken pox and is protected from future infections; we call this _____ immunity.
artificially acquired active
A person receives a toxoid vaccine to protect them from tetanus. This vaccine offers _____ immunity.
naturally acquired passive
Antibodies transferred from a mother across the placenta to her fetus offers the fetus _____ immunity.
*artificially acquired passive
An AIDS patient has never contracted the chicken pox, so they are given a dose of chicken pox immunoglobulin. This offers the patient _____ immunity. What are disadvantages of this kind of immunity? _____
antibody against toxin (to neutralize the toxin) as a "boost" to their own immune response.
A person suffering from tetanus is given tetanus immunoglobulin (antitoxin). Explain what a person is getting when they are given this treatment and why they are getting it.
What kind of immune response is elicited by vaccination? (primary or secondary)
After you are vaccinated you are infected by the bacteria you were vaccinated against. What kind of immune response occurs? (primary or secondary)
a product of a person's own immune system; in other words, a person's immune system is stimulated to produce antibody
Antibodies produced elsewhere are given to a person (Antibody transfusion)
exposure to microbes
THIS is an essential part of our body, an infection without a disease
In microbial antagonism, the host provides THESE
natural flora protect the host by competing with and edging out many pathogens
study of disease
cause of disease
the microbe that causes the disease
manner in which a disease develops
refers the the degree of pathogenicity
tool that increases the strength and hardiness of a pathogen
sneak in and cause no immune response
The most successful pathogen would be able to do THIS
less fatal (cause less response, can survive longer)
In the evolution of a pathogen, over time they become....
THIS is where a pathogen was living before it entered you
THESE are called vectors (especially insects)
THIS is the process of leaving a reservoir and entering the body of a human host
number of pathogens that make it through the portal of entry
Upon transmission, infection depends on the infectious dose that enters. This refers to...
breaks in skin
THESE are the most common portals of entry
2 general patterns of transmission in communicable diseases
fomites (inanimate objects)
food, water, biological products
air (example - an earthquake may cause an outbreak, because it stirs up a certain fungus from the soil and more people inhale it)
3 types of indirect transmission
direct (kissing, touching)
vertical (mother to child)
vector (direct contact with animal)
4 types of transmission by contact
3 ways to adhere
nutrient rich environment
Most pathogens are invasive, which means they go deeper than the surface. Benefits of this:
enzyme that digests the substance that holds the cells of tissues together
Some cells can invade by secreting THIS so they can squeeze between cells
live and multiply inside cells
Invading the host: some pathogens are intracellular. They do THIS
stimulation of the body's defenses
most common forms of pathogenesis
THESE are enzymes released by bacteria
THIS is a specific chemical product that is poisonous to other organisms (ex. venom, pesticide, tetanus, botulism)
2 groups of bacterial toxins
THESE are proteins secreted from pathogens
THIS is a toxin which is part of a pathogen's structure
LPS (outer membrane gram-)
There is only one endotoxin:
our immune response
When pathogens enter, much of the damage or disease we feel is due to...
examples of protection against phagocytosis by white blood cells
same as portal of entry (respiratory tract, skin scales, feces, blood, etc.)
Common portal of exit is often...
some microbes mutate and change their surface antigens so that the immune system does not recognize them. This is called..
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