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Systematic approach learning about the environment

Environmental science is a

Complex, interrelated problems

Most environmental problems result from

Applied interdisciplinary field with an emphasis on solving problems

In explaining your choice of an environmental science major in college to your roommate, you would probably emphasize the fact that environment science is a(n)

Is orderly and methodical

Ideally, science

Proposed explanation based on observation

The best definition of a hypothesis is a(n)

If all insects have six legs, then butterflies have six legs

Of the following statements and questions, which is the best example of deductive reasoning?

Inductive reasoning

The statement, "Since every insect I have examined so far has six legs, I conclude that all insects must have six legs." is an example of

May have different interpretations of the same evidence

Generally, distinguished scientists

Open to question or new evidence

Proof in science is always

She put some tomatoes in the sun and some in the shade to see if the sun causes them to ripen faster

Although your sister is not a scientist, she says that she uses scientific techniques in her everyday life. You do not believe her but she insists it is true. Which of the following examples could she use to best persuade you?

Determine the average level of nitrogen in the water

A group of concerned citizens are collecting water samples from a local river to detect the level of nitrogen in the water. They plan to take samples every day for a month and then will divide the sum by the number of days they sampled. What is the group trying to do?

Determining the context of how data was gathered

Which of the following is not an example of how statistics are used?

Wood, jobs, and recreation for people

Pragmatic conservationists, including Gifford Pinchot and Theodore Roosevelt, supported forest conservation in order to protect

Beauty and wildlife habitat

Biocentric preservationists, first led by John Muir, advocate saving natural areas for their

Placing more emphasis on pollution problems

Environmentalism stemming from the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring differed from earlier North American conservation perspectives by

Global concerns

At the end of the 20th century, what has/ have been added to environmental thinking

Weigh evidence and draw your own conclusions

The point of critical thinking is to learn to

Look for evidence of the source's reliability

In reading a claim by an atmospheric scientist that ozone depletion is not an actual environmental problem, a critical thinker would

Decide if premises are true

One of the first steps in critical thinking is to

A decrease in the average number of children born to each woman

Evidence of progress in dealing with population problems is best illustrated by

Cause and suffer from

The world's poorest people ______environmental degradation

The lack of available opportunities

Poverty is usually passed on from one generation to the next through

Development can proceed with minimal costs to the environment

Proponents of sustainable development argue that

many; a specific critical factor

There is/are usually _____tolerance limit(s) responsible for limiting the number and location of a species. However, some organisms have _____that limit(s) their distribution.

Zone of physiological stress

A species can withstand a narrow range of temperature. Above 100F there are no species present. In the range 97F 100F and 90F 94F there are a few species present. Below 90F there are no species present. What would you label the range of temperature from 90F to 94F for this particular species?

Optimal range

A species can withstand a narrow range of temperature. Above 100F there are no species present. In the range 97F 100F and 90F 94F there are a few species present. Below 90F there are no species present. What would you label the range of temperature from 95F to 96F for this particular species?

population; physiological modifications at the individual level

What is the difference in the adaptation of sled dog's thick coat of hair to help it withstand the cold temperatures of Arctic winters and a dog that adapts to cold temperatures in the fall by growing a thickened coat? The adaptation of the sled dog best describes adaptation at the ____level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has______.

Better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic

Evolution occurs as a result of

More adapted to its environment

Natural selection will ultimately makes a species

Tall flowers cannot reproduce

Regular lawn mowing selects for short-headed rather than tall-headed dandelions because

interspecific competition

A titmouse and a chickadee are living in the same territory and are using some of the same resources. The best way to classify this interaction is as

Eating prey before they are "ready" (ripe) for other species

Which of the following is not a common strategy for successful interspecific competition?

Different ecological strategy niches for juveniles and adults

An especially effective strategy for reducing intraspecific competition is

Living together

Symbiosis means

Structure and moisture-holding ability; mutualism

In the partnership of a lichen, the fungus provides ____and the relationship is best described as _______.

That is can produce

An organisms's biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring


A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species _____ its environmental carrying capacity

J-Shaped curve

In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population. Yet, a SUPERFLY with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?

The amount of biomass produced in the community

A biological community's productivity is a measure of


In a biological community where diversity is a great, such as a tropical rainforest, the abundance of any one species is likely to be

Species at each trophic level

Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of

Little complexity

A community with hundreds of different types of primary producers, a few herbivores, and only one carnivore, has

On unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another

Primary succession occurs when a community develops _______while secondary succession occurs when one______.


Which of the following are pioneer species?

Becomes more diverse

As ecological development proceeds, a biological community

Is relatively stable and long lasting

A climax community is one that


True/ False: The most common reason that introduced species cause trouble is because they are larger than native species.


True/False: The introduction of a predator onto an island originally free from predators is likely to cause the extinction of native species


True/False: Sustainable development differs from traditional economic development in that it emphasizes economic development in the short term


True/False: Places in the world where indigenous people live tend to have high biodiversity


The world human population reached 1 billion in about

Religious restrictions on marriage

Historically, up until the Middle Ages, populations were mostly limited by


A population growing at 1% per year should double in about _____ years.

35 years

On an island in the South Pacific, there is a population of 1,000 South Pacific Splendor Birds. There is no immigration or emigration but there are 40 births and 20 deaths per year. The doubling time for the population of South Pacific Splendor Birds would be

Been developed because there are more people, supporting the view that more people are the "ultimate resource"

Technological optimists argue that technological advances are

Disagreed about the root causes of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval

Malthus and Marx

High birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

The demographic transition refers to a country's change from

Women tend to have more influence in family planning

Many demographers believe believe that birth rates generally decrease as the level of development increases because

Resources are distributed fairly

Proponents of social justice believe that environmental and social problems will decrease if

Decide in advance how many children they should have

Family planning means enabling people to


Which of the following is a mechanical barrier to conception?

Men protest about possible hormonal changes and a repressed sexual drive

Male contraceptives are less common than female contraceptives because

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