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Which of the following molecules is broken down in cellular respiration, providing fuel for the cell?


How does Photogenesis work?


Which energy-rich molecule produced by cellular respiration directly powers cell work?


Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain

Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cel


In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?


Which statement describes glycolysis?

This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.

Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?

This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

Which statement describes the electron transport chain?

This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.

Brown fat appears brown because it is filled with what?


most brown fat on infants is found>\?

on their back

which hormone activates brown fat?




sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain

The oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells is


In earthworms, gas exchange occurs in the _____


Ventilation is a mechanism _____

that increases the contact between respiratory surfaces and the environmen

What is required to ensure that the gas exchange mechanism shown below continues to work effectivELY?


The tracheal system of an insect is most like which of the following?

the air duct system of a building

The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is

to obtain energy fromt there food

Which of the following options correctly lists the sequence of structures that air passes through during breathing after it enters the mouth and nose?

pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

What is the specific site of gas exchange in the respiratory system?

the allveoli

Contraction of the _____________ causes expansion of the lungs


The ____________ and the ____________ are commonly known as the voicebox and windpipe, respectivel

larynx and trachea

Asthma causes constriction of the tiny air passages in the lungs, otherwise known as the __________.


In the alveoli and lung capillaries, CO2 and O2 are exchanged by means of ____


Which of the following contributes to gas exchange in the human fetus?

the increased oxygen binding capability of fetal hemoglobin

Evolutionary adaptations for survival on land produced tetrapods, which later evolved into

amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.

In the capillaries of the body, oxygen released from hemoglobin first diffuses into

blood plasma

Air leaving human lungs during exhalation contains

carbon dioxide and unused oxygen

the____ is a passageway shared both by food and air


When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially
to the urge to breathe again?

rising carbn dioxide concentration

A three year old says he is going to hold his breath until he dies. His respiratory
function is normal. Should his mother be worried about him?


Cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke cause cancer due to the

toxins in the smoke

Most CO2 is transported to the lungs

as bicarbonate ions

The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to

obtain energy from their food

Compared to vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold?

always more

What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the


A mutant protist is found in which some mitochondria lack an inner mitochondrial
membrane. Which of the following pathways would be completely disrupted in
these mitochondria?

oxidative phosphorylation

If you consume 1 g of each of the following, which will yield the most ATP?


Generates most of the ATP formed by
cellular respiration

oxidative phosphorylation

Carried out by enzymes in the matrix
of the mitochondrion

citric acid cycle

Occurs outside the mitochondrion


Which of the following statements about blood clotting is true?
A) Threads of fibrin trap blood cells and platelets.
B) Fibrin is converted to fibrinogen.
C) During the clotting response, red blood cells
rapidly congregate in the interstitial fluid.
D) The first response to an injury is dilation of the damaged blood vessels.

Threads of fibrin trap blood cells and platelets

Which of the following produces a thick fluid containing fructose, which is used for
energy by sperm?
A) vagina B) prostate gland C) seminal vesicles D) epididymis

eminal vesicles

Human testes are positioned in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity

so the testes can be kept cooler than the body's interior

Which of the following occurs during cellular migration and development into
specialized tissue?

similar cells glue themselves in place by secreting glycoproteins

The induction and maintenance of labor represents an example of which type of
A) positive feedback involving pituitary, uterine, and placental hormones and
B) negative feedback involving pituitary hormones and uterine prostaglandins
C) positive feedback involving uterine substances only

positive feedback involving pituitary,uterine,and placental hormones and prostaglandins

A) is triggered by HCG.
B) coincides with the postovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle.
C) is triggered by an LH surge.
D) coincides with the beginning of the ovarian cycle.

coincides with the beginning of the ovarian cycle

Which of the following serves as an impenetrable barrier that prevents more than
one sperm from fertilizing an egg?
A) the jelly coat of the egg
B) the sperm's plasma membrane
C) the zygote's cytoplasm
D) the fertilization envelope
E) the acrosome

the fertilization envelope

Which of the following statements regarding birth control is true?
A) Birth control pills work primarily by preventing fertilization and implantation.
B) The most widely used birth control pills contain a combination of FSH and LH.
C) Morning-after pills taken within three days of unprotected intercourse prevent
fertilization or implantation about 75% of the time.
D) Spermicides used alone are generally reliable.
E) Natural family planning is generally reliable.

morning after pills...........

At about what point in gestation does the fetal heartbeat become audible using a
A) 40 weeks B) 25 weeks C) 30 weeks D) 12 weeks

12 weeks

Reproductive systems with external fertilization are most common in
A) terrestrial animals.
B) aquatic animals.
C) animals that are widely dispersed.

aquatic animals

What would happen if the trophoblast of an implanting embryo, and later the
chorion, failed to secrete human chorionic gonadotropin?
A) Neural tube formation would not occur, and the embryo would have no
central nervous system.
B) The embryo would be aborted.
C) Blood and blood vessel formation would fail to develop.
D) The fetal elements of the placenta would fail to develop.
E) The maternal elements of the placenta would fail to develop.

the embryo would be aborted

The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called
A) sinoatrial (SA) node. B) aorta C) heart center of the brain
D) atrioventricular (AV) node.
E) Purkinje fibers.

sinoatrial SA node

Arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features except
A) the number of red blood cells.
B) the direction of blood flow relative to the heart.
C) the structure of their walls.
D) the blood pressure.
E) the amount of oxygen present in the blood.

the amount of oxygen present in the blood

Which of the following is characteristic of the circulatory system of arthropods?
A) blood flowing out of the body
B) lack of blood
C) lack of distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
D) lack of a heart
E) lack of blood vessels.

lack of distinction between blood and interstitial fluid

In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ________ just
before entering the right atrium.
A) left atrium B) aorta C) superior vena cava
D) inferior vena cava E) right ventricle

superior vena cava

Choose the word that does NOT fit with the other
terms .
34. A. venule B. artery C. atrium D. capillary


A. fibrin B. leukocyte C. platelet D. red blood cell


A. fibrogen B. hypertension C. systolic pressure D. sphygmomanometer


pulmonary veins B. lungs C. right ventricle D. aorta


semilunar valve B. AV node C. SA node D. pacemaker

semilunar valve

Which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false?
A) The systemic circuit carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body.
B) Mammals have two atria and two ventricles in their hearts.
C) The pulmonary circuit carries blood between the heart and the lungs.
D) The left side of a mammal's heart sends blood to the lungs.
E) A mammal uses about ten times as much oxygen as a lizard of the same size.

the eft side of a mammals heart sends blood to the lungs

During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?
A) resting phase B) systole C) diastole D) interphase


The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time are
A) transverse and repetitive.
B) horizontal and vertical.
C) open and closed.
D) single and double.
E) flat and circular.

open and closed

Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart
A) squirrel
B) salmon
C) salamander
D) snake
E) swan


A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from skeletal
muscle cells. However, the muscles still function. Physicians find that
A) the muscles require extremely large amounts of carbon dioxide to function.
B) the muscles contain large amounts of lactate (lactic acid) following even mild
physical exercise.
C) the muscle cells cannot split glucose to pyruvate.
D) the muscles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide following even mild
physical exercise.
E) the muscles require extremely high levels of oxygen to function.

the muscles contain large amounts of lactate following even mild physical excersise

The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except
B) CO2.
E) pyruvate.


Between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle,
A) a CO2 molecule is added to pyruvate.
B) coenzyme A is removed from pyruvate.
C) a carbon atom is added to make a four-carbon compound.
D) coenzyme A is cleaved off the four-carbon compound.
E) pyruvate is oxidized while a molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADH.

pyruvate is oxidized while a molecule of NAD is reduced to NADH

Which of the following organisms can make organic molecules from water and
carbon dioxide?
A) crayfish
B) bear
C) mushroom
D) wheat
E) honeybee


Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They've added yeast to a
sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days
they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in
the mixture. The most likely explanation is that
A) the yeast used the alcohol as a carbon source.
B) the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the
absence of oxygen.
C) the mixture needs more sugar, because yeast need a lot of energy.
D) the mixture needs less sugar, because high sugar concentrations stimulate
cellular respiration, and alcohol is not a by-product of cellular respiration.
E) the mixture needs more oxygen, because yeast need

the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen

The _____ is a structure specialized for diffusion of gases and nutrients betwen the
blood of the mother and the fetus.
A) placenta B) uterus C) lamella D) alveolus


_______ use their entire outer skin as a repiratory surface.
A) Earthworms B) Insects
C) Racoons D) none of these


_____ breathing ventilates human lungs.
A) Negative pressure B) Gill
C) Tracheal system D) Positive feedback

negative pressure

What is the function of the AV node?

The AV node relays the signal for cardiac muscle contraction to the ventricles.

Which statement regarding the direction of blood flow and the oxygen content of blood vessels is true?

Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.

Adaptation to terrestrial life required major evolutionary changes, not just in the respiratory system, but also in the

cardiovascular system

What process are leukocytes involved in?

fighting infections

what does veins have?


Blood pressure is lowest in _____.

the venae cava

Why do leukemia patients sometimes need a bone marrow transplant?

If the patient does not respond to standard chemotherapy and radiation treatments, a bone marrow transplant is another treatment option.

In which of the following animals are blood and interstitial fluid the same?

the grasshopper

Which statement lists the correct order of blood flow?

right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle

Which of the following cells are phagocytes?

monocytes and neutrophils

During ventricular systole, blood flows _____.

from the left ventricle into the aorta, and from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries

How do oxygen and carbon dioxide cross capillary walls?


Which of the following best describes an artery?

Arteries carry blood away from the heart.

Which of the following options correctly lists the three stages of labor in the order in which they occur?

dilation, expulsion, delivery of placenta

When a chemical signal from a group of embryonic cells causes a different, nearby group of cells to embark on a particular developmental course (say, differentiating into a leg), the interaction between the two groups of cells is called


Between 1980 and 2003, the rate of multiple births in the United States rose by 87%, primarily as a result of

increase of use of fertility drugs

Which of the following is a form of sexual reproduction

formation of a zygote

Which of the following occurs during cellular migration and development into specialized tissue?

Similar cells glue themselves in place by secreting glycoproteins.

In an experiment, a researcher colored a bit of tissue on the outside of a frog gastrula with a fluorescent dye. The embryo developed normally. When the tadpole was placed under an ultraviolet light, the _____ glowed bright orange

the brain

Which of the following events occurs first during embryonic developmen


another term for gestation is


Which of the following correctly traces the path of sperm from their site of production to their exit from a man's body

seminiferous tubule ... epididymis ... vas deferens ... ejaculatory duct ... urethra

The way cells behave during pattern formation is most like

a person finding his or her way home by noticing familiar sights and sounds

A developing embryo depends on a cellular process that causes specific cells to commit suicide to give form to a developing animal. The process is called


At which gestational age does a developing human fetus first look obviously human and not like other vertebrate embryos

9 weeks

The function of a sperm cell's acrosome is to

carry enzymes that are released to form a hole in the egg's jelly coat when the sperm encounters an egg

Which of the following is (almost) never found in or on the human ovary


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