Chapter 28 "The New Frontier and The Great Society"
Terms in this set (61)
Kennedy's plan, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wants to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military
A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
Extended health insurance to welfare recipients
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States 35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963
A policy, developed during the Kennedy administration, that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the regime of the dictator Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
a communication link established in 1963 to allow the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union to contact each other in times of crisis
Limited Test Ban Treaty
prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion" in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water
A president's claim of broad public support. JFK lacked a popular mandate.
JFK created this program , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Alliance for Progress
program set up by JFK to send economic aid to Latin American countries in an attempt to keep them away from communism
a group, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy and concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was alone responsible for it. also that there are no conspiracy concerning the assassination.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
he became president of the US after the Kennedy assassination. His presidency was marked by growing demand for social reform, marking the Great Society
Economic Opportunity Act
An economic legislation that created many social programs to help provide funds for youth programs antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job training; part of the Great Society.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program this. Involved measures such as Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education
Immigration Act of 1965
Abolished the national-origins quotas and providing for the admission each year of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere
the Supreme Court during the period when Earl Warren was chief justice, noted for its activism in the areas of civil rights and free speech
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
Leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin. He led the Soviet Union during the U2 Incident, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the construction of the Berlin Wall.
Attorney General and John F. Kennedy's brother
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas.
Night club owner assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald on November 24, 1963
US agency created to gather secret information about foreign governments
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Baker v. Carr
Warren Court (Supreme Court) case that established "one man one vote"
Civil Rights Act
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Miranda v. Arizona
1966-Warren Court (Supreme Court) ruling that upon arrest, a suspect has the "right to remain silent" and the right to consult with a lawyer.
Gideon v. Wainwright
Warren Court (Supreme Court) ruled that state courts are required to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - Warren Court (Supreme Court) ruling that declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
1965 - Provided federal funding for primary and secondary education and was meant to improve the education of poor people. This was the first federal program to fund education.
Richard M. Nixon
He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate "subversion"). He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930's. This brought Nixon to the attention of the American public. In 1956 he was Eisenhower's Vice-President.
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties
southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil Rights Leader. Born in Atlanta. Developed a non-violent approach to social change after studying others like Gandhi. Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Gave the "I have a Dream Speech" at the March of Washington
the election of 1960
A narrow victory for Kennedy, who was aided by his youth, sense of purpose and photogenic appearance. Nixon, in turn, suffered from being Vice-President, and for seeming to be constantly nervous in this televised debates with Kennedy.
the Camelot Years
Time period which JFK gave special recognition to American Art and Culture. America was fascinated by him and his families glamour.
the Kennedy Mystique
critics argued that kennedy's presidency lacked substance, however, the nation couldn't get enough of the family: jackie's eye for fashion and the kids playing
Wife of JFK and First Lady of the United States during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. (1929 - 1994)
stimulating the economy
deficit spending, lower taxes and higher gov. spending. DOD recieved nearly 20% budget increase, increased minimum wage to $1.25/hour, extended unemployment insurance, and assistance to high unemployment cities.
addressing poverty abroad
JFK started the peace corps
first satellite to transmit live television and telephone signals across the Atlantic ocean
National Aeronautic and Space Administration - 1958; to get US back in running with the Soviets in space race
First man on the moon
Yuri A. Gagarin
Soviet cosmonaut that became the first human in space
How did FDR influence LBJ?
He took him under his wing when LBJ was just a young politician. LBJ idolized FDR and patterned himself after him.
What factors led Kennedy to ask Johnson to be his running mate?
He was able to get bills passed in Congress, his congressional connections and his Southern Protestant background.
What major Kennedy legislation was Johnson able to get enacted?
A tax cut and the civil rights act which prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, or sex.
How did Johnson fare in the election of 1964?
He won by a landslide
the war on poverty
Part of the Great Society. The Economic Opportunity Act was passed to give people the tools to get out of poverty by creating a Job Corps, a domestic peace Corps, a system for vocational training and Head Start.
What effect did Great Society programs on the environment and consumers?
Water Quality Act passed to help the environment, and safety laws were passed to help consumers.
How was political representation affected by the Supreme Court?
Project Head Start
A government-funded program that is designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for school success.
How were the rights of people accused of crimes expanded by the Supreme Court?
Evidence seized illegally could not be used in court, and the right of an accused person to have an attorney.(Miranda Rights)
How effective was the War on Poverty?
Very effective, percent of poor people fell from 21% in 1962 to 11% in 1973.
How did the Great Society contribute to a conservative blockade?
The Great Society was expensive, particularly when the U.S. faced escalating costs in the Vietnam War after cutting taxes in 1964. The annual U.S. budget increased by more than 100% from $94 billion to $196 billion during the 1960s. Revenues started to lag behind expenditures. Philosophically, many Americans also questioned the merit of expanding welfare and whether—as some critics of the New Deal had claimed—all these programs amounted to an unearned hand-out and income redistribution to the poor.
Mapp v. Ohio
"unreasonable searches and seizures" may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
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