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Visual Arts CST

Flashcards to prepare for visual arts CST, NYSTCE
STUDY
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Geometric Art (Greece)
9th - 8th Century B.C.
Pottery ornamented with geometric banding, friezes of simple animals, humans
Hellenistic Art (Greece)
323 - 31 B.C.
Greek derived style found in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Egypt
More melodramatic than Classical style
Japanese woodblock printing
Flat, bright colored prints
Contrast, linear patterns
Cropped compositions, single point perspective
ukiyo-e prints - floating world (brothels, red light district)
Waste Molding
Can only be used once
Plaster mold
Best for large scale sculpture

Steps: (1) coat original in vaseline or resist, section off with lines
(2) Coat with plaster mix in several layers
(3) Mother mold, cut based on sections
(4) Original is destroyed, fill mold with material
Baroque
"The Ornate Age" - mid 16th - 18th century (1600 - 1750)
Sensitivity/Mastery of light for emotional impact
Roman Catholic Church - dramatic style - power and control
Caravaggio, Bernini, Rembrandt, Velazquez
Cubism
Analytic (1st phase) to Synthetic (2nd - collage)
Natural forms changed by geometrical reduction
Early 20th century
Many views of one subject
Picasso, Braque, Leger
Art Nouveau
1890s
Decorative style - forms based on objects found in nature
Gaudi (Barcelona, Spain)
Aubrey Beardsley - erotic illustration, based on Japanese prints
Baldacchino
Ornamental canopy over an altar (church)
S Curve
Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture
Extension of contrapposto
Contrapposto
Italian "counterpose"
Weight shift on one foot
Bauhaus
Walter Gropius
Functional and aesthetically pleasing
Mass produced for society
20th century
Abstract Expressionism
New York 1940s painting movement
Non-representational
Action Painting
(deKooning, Pollock, Kline, etc)
Armory Show
1913 exhibition, New York
introduced Modernism (Paris) to America
Marcel Duchamp - Nude Descending a Staircase (II), 1912 - beginning of Cubism
Art Deco
Applied design, 1920s - 30s
Derived from French, African, Aztec, Chinese motifs
Architecture and crafts
Romanticism
1800-50 Age of Sensibility
Emotion, intuition, imagination
Gericault, Raft of Medusa
Delacroix
Legends, exotica, nature, violence
Hudson River School
America's first native school for painting
Thomas Cole, founder (1801 - 48)
Landscapes untouched, nature as religious experience (Eden/Paradise) - Thoreau, Emerson
Gothic
Stained glass, more natural sculpture
Pointed-arch cathedral
Chartres, France
1194 - 1260
Fauvism
1904 - 1908
Intense, bright colors
First major avant-garde movement
Emotional response
Refusal to imitate nature and discovery of non-European tribal arts
Inspired by post-Impressionists
Matisse, Derain, Roualt, Braque, Dufy
Tilted Arc
Richard Serra, 1981, steel
installed at Federal Plaza, NY
Created a divide between pedestrians and the plaza - had to walk around it
Removed in 1989 - Visual Artist Right Act (VARA)
Byzantine
Stylized religious art
Eastern Roman Empire, 532-37 Constantinople, Turkey
Mosaics, icons
Central Dome Church - Hagia Sophia
Romanesque
a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between the Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD
Frescoes, stylized sculpture, barrel-vaulted church
St. Sernin
Futurism
Italian art movement around 1910 that tried to express the energy and values of the machine age
rapid movement of machinery
combined bright "fauve" colors with fractured Cubist planes to express propulsion
Boccioni
Constructivism
Russian artists who wished to reflect modern machinery and technology working - geometric
aim to "construct art" - used industrial materials
1913-1932
Tatlin - "Model for the Monument for the Third International"
Other artists: Malevich, Rodchenko, Lissitzky
Persistence of Memory
Dali, 1931. Spanish Surrealist. Oil on canvas
"Hard" and "soft" objects (reality vs. dream, time passing)
Acrylic Mediums and Gels
Range in consistency and thickness
Used to manipulate acrylic paint
Intaglio
Etching onto metal plates
Recessed areas filled with ink
Aquatint, mezzotint
Oiling out
Bring back sunken patches of an oil painting using stand oil and/or mineral spirits
Hollow Casting
A method of casting metal, such as bronze, by a process in which a wax mold is covered with clay and plaster, then fired, melting the wax and leaving a hollow form
Thickness of material varies
Usually used for ornamental objects
AKA Slush Casting
Lost Wax Process
metal casting method, figure is modeled in wax and covered with clay, molten metal is poured where wax once was
mold is destroyed to cast item!
impasto
Thick application of paint
Textured, almost three-dimensional
drypoint etching
Intaglio technique
Use a needle/sharp point to directly draw onto the plate (no acid bath)
Relief Printing
Printmaking process
Recessed areas become negative space
Process by removal
Woodcut, linoleum printing
Encaustic
Pigment mixed with wax and resin, hot mixture then painted onto surface
Chiaroscuro
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, to create focal point or mood
Batik
dyed textile or paper that has a wax resist pattern applied with molten wax
Bas-relief
low relief sculpture that projects slightly from background
Celtic Art
Produced by the Celts 450 BC - 700 AD
Mostly portable objects
ornamental, patterns, curvelinear forms
Impressionism
Focus on changing of light, color, and movement
19th century art movement
revered Manet for his independence
Subject matter - outdoors, seaside, Parisian streets and cafes
Artists -Monet, Renoir, Degas, Cassatt
monochromatic
single hue with different values
creates unity
elements of art
line, texture, color, shape / form, value, space
Principles of Design
Repetition, Contrast, Unity, Balance, Emphasis
Annealer
Final furnace in glass blowing process
Used to slowly decrease temperature of glass over a period of a few hours to prevent cracking
Does not require ventilation
Burin
Metal instrument with sharp point used to incise designs on metal plates and other surfaces (intaglio)
kaolin
major ingredient in porcelain
armature
framework around which the sculpture is built
made with wire usually
for clay - paper or wood
gesso
white paint mixture
primes surfaces for painting
earthenware
low-fire clay
porous and soft
most commonly found clay in nature
low shrinkage
Cones (in kiln)
used to indicate temperature range within kiln (heat-work range)
Numbers with '0' are lower than those don't have '0' in front (i.e. 018 < 1)
indicated with a ^
bisque firing
changes clay to ceramic before fully fusing it
usually used before a glaze, then fired again to melt glaze
brought to temperature slowly (electric kiln preferred)
grog
added to clay
prevents cracking and warping during firing
aggregate of pre-fired, crushed clay particles
stoneware
high fire clay
industrial ceramics
functional (i.e. dinnerware)
hard, dense, bonds well with glazes
porcelain
made of 'kaolin'
high fire clay
light in color (white, grey unfired)
non-plastic, warps in kiln sometimes
wedges (painting)
fits into slots on inside of each corner of stretcher
if canvas sags, wedges can be driven in further with a hammer to expand corners
silverpoint
technique popular during Medieval and Renaissance
fine line drawing technique
silver rod or wire across a surface
Albrecht Durer
Entasis
Curve along the tapering lines of a column
Mannerism
Late Renissance
Abandons realism, symmetry, central focus point
End of Rome - the Reformation (religion in flux)
Bodies contort, colors lurid, tension, movement, and unreal lighting
Pontormo, Rosso, Bronzino
Navaho
the largest Indian tribe in the United States today; famous for their beautiful woven rags and silver jewelry
Southwestern Tribe
Geometric design rugs with herbal and mineral dyes
Sand painting to heal disease, promote fertility, assure successful hunt
Using natural materials - powdered rock, corn pollen, charcoal
Neoclassicism
1780-1820 Age of Reason
Greek and Roman revival
Jacques-Louis David (Death of Marat, Oath of the Horatii)
Calm, rational / Order, solemnity
Der Blue Reiter
- expressionist group began in munich 1911
- The Blue Rider
artists involved: Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee
- expression of emotions
- refined art as an object without subject matter but with perceptual properties that were able to convey feelings
Mayan Art
- Stepped pyramid temples
- Limestone with relief sculpture and hieroglyphics
- Guatemala, Mexico
- Sophisticated calendar, knowledge of Astronomy
Ended at 900 AD
Aztec Art
- Capital was Mexico City
- Massive statues of gods - regular human sacrifice
- Skilled in gold work
- Came after the Mayans
Kwakiutl
Northwest coast tribe
Totem poles, masks, and decorated houses and canoes
Facial features exaggerated in wood carving
Mortuary poles and totem poles indicate social status
Hopi
Carved and painted Kachina dolls (out of cottonwood roots) to represent gods and teach religion
Kiras - ceremonial underground spaces with elaborate moral painting of agricultural deities
Expressionism
Painting of feelings, often abstract
Modernist movement
Grew out of the dehumanizing effect of industrialization and cities
Guernica
Pablo Picasso, 1937, mural painting with oil
Black and white contrast with intensity of subject matter
Anti-war - Nazi Germany bombing of Guernica in 1937 (Spanish Civil War)
Cubism
Artemesia Gentileschi
1593-1653
Student of Caravaggio
First woman painter to be widely known, appreciated
Frank Stella
1960's, 70's
Painting as self sufficient object
Interest in mechanical drawing/painting
Minimalism, Ab-ex
Nighthawks
Edward Hopper, 1942
Oil on canvas
"Big city" loneliness, American
Kitagawa Utamaro, Mother and Child
1790 (Edo period - 1615-1868)
Polychrome woodblock print
Reflects interest in the individual
Part of series "women's daily customs"
Les Demoiselles de Avignon
Pablo Picasso, 1907, oil on canvas
Early development of cubism, modernism
Abandoned perspective, influence of African Art (Primitivism)?
Die Brucke (The Bridge)
German Expressionists from Dresden
Founded by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
c. 1905 - 1913
Emil Nolde
Revival of wood cut prints, linocuts
chasing
steel punches used to decorate or creature texture in a metal surface
hammering from front rather than punching from behind
Alla Prima
Wet-on-wet oil painting
pochade
small preparatory oil sketch before actual painting
liquid latex molding
"glove mold" - best for concrete or plaster - needs a "mother mold"
1. Brush on layers of latex
2. Peel off mold
3. Support stand for mold (mother)
4. Cast
Archaic Art (Greece)
600-480 BC
Kuoros stone figures
Vase painting
Kuoros / Kore (Greek Art)
Kuoros - Male Nude, Kore - Female Clothed Maiden
Frontal stance, clenched fists
"The Archaic Smile"
Left foot forward
Classical Art (Greece)
480 - 323 BC
Peak of Greek Art and Architecture
Idealized figures of/exemplify order and harmony
"Sever Style" - early classical. Reserved/remote expression
Sgraffito
scratching through one layer of color to reveal another
plaster
Dry powder mixed with water
Often used for casting (molds) and fresco painting
1 quart water to 5 lbs powder
Video color bars
recorded at head of videotape as reference for post production
matching camera output (multiple)
to set up video monitor
lithography
Printmaking technique - traditionally with stone
Oil/greasy - adheres to the ink (water resist) to print positive image!

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