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41 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 13: Stress, Coping, and Health

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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
A disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Acute Stressors
Threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint.
Agression
Any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally.
Approach-Approach Conflict
A conflict situation in which a choice must be made between two attractive goals.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
A conflict situation in which a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Learning that has occurred when an organism engages in a response that prevents aversive stimulation from occurring.
Biopsychosocial Model
A model of illness that holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
Burnout
Physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion that is attributable to work-related stress.
Catastrophic Thinking
Unrealistically pessimistic appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of one's problems.
Catharsis
The release of emotional tension.
Chronic Stressors
Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit.
Conflict
A state that occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression.
Constructive Coping
Relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events.
Coping
Active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress.
Defensive Mechanisms
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
Fight-or-Flight Response
A physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy.
Frustration
The feeling that people experience in any situation in which their pursuit of some goal is thwarted.
General Adaptation Syndrome
Selye's model of the body's stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Health Psychology
The subfield of psychology concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness.
Immune Response
The body's defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances.
Internet Addiction
Spending an inordinate amount of time on the Internet and being unable to control online use.
Learned Helplessness
Passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.
Life Changes
Any noticeable alterations in one's living circumstances that require readjustment.
Optimism
A general tendency to expect good outcomes.
Pressure
Expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way.
Psychosomatic Diseases
Physical ailments with a genuine organic basis that are caused in part by psychological factors, especially emotional distress.
Rational-Emotive Therapy
An approach to therapy that focuses on altering clients' patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive emotions and behavior.
Social Support
Various types of aid and succor provided by members of one's social networks.
Stress
Any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well-being and that thereby tax one's coping abilities.
Type A Personality
Personality characterized by (1) a strong competitive orientation, (2) impatience and time urgency, and (3) anger and hostility.
Type B Personality
Personality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.
Richard Lazarus
developed the Hassle scale measuring the everyday hassles and stress and its significance.
Hans Selye
formulated an influential theory of stress reactions called the general adaptation syndrome.
Albert Ellis
identified the tendency to become highly self-critical in response to stress as "catastrophic thinking" and also noted many tendencies related to it.
Shelley Taylor and Jonathon Brown
suggested that "positive illusions" may be adaptive for mental health (referring to defense mechanisms)
Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman
studied how people explain bad events and identified pessimistic and optimistic explanatory styles and their differences.
Robin DiMatteo
a leading expert on patient behavior.
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman
discovered a connection between coronary risk and Type A Personality
Walter Cannon
Was one of the first theorists to describe the fight or flight response.
Holmes and Rahe
developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Janice Kiecolt-Glaser
Related stress to suppressed immune activity in humans.