Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
A disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A conflict situation in which a choice must be made between two attractive goals.
A conflict situation in which a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
Learning that has occurred when an organism engages in a response that prevents aversive stimulation from occurring.
A model of illness that holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
Unrealistically pessimistic appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of one's problems.
Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit.
A state that occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression.
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
A physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy.
The feeling that people experience in any situation in which their pursuit of some goal is thwarted.
General Adaptation Syndrome
Selye's model of the body's stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
The subfield of psychology concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness.
The body's defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances.
Spending an inordinate amount of time on the Internet and being unable to control online use.
Physical ailments with a genuine organic basis that are caused in part by psychological factors, especially emotional distress.
An approach to therapy that focuses on altering clients' patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive emotions and behavior.
Any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well-being and that thereby tax one's coping abilities.
Type A Personality
Personality characterized by (1) a strong competitive orientation, (2) impatience and time urgency, and (3) anger and hostility.
Type B Personality
Personality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.
developed the Hassle scale measuring the everyday hassles and stress and its significance.
formulated an influential theory of stress reactions called the general adaptation syndrome.
identified the tendency to become highly self-critical in response to stress as "catastrophic thinking" and also noted many tendencies related to it.
Shelley Taylor and Jonathon Brown
suggested that "positive illusions" may be adaptive for mental health (referring to defense mechanisms)
Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman
studied how people explain bad events and identified pessimistic and optimistic explanatory styles and their differences.
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman
discovered a connection between coronary risk and Type A Personality