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BIO 315 Test #3
Terms in this set (64)
water with 3.5% concentration of salt
Where do salts come from
weathering, volcanoes, hydro-thermal vents, and from space
55% chloride, 30% sodium
Process for fish to eliminate salt
They constantly have to be drinking water because they are losing water through their skin due to salty water
4 main forces that cause water motion
Wind, gravitational attraction, seismic disturbances,
Large moving bodies are deflected to the right or to the left (clockwise at the northern hemisphere, counterclockwise at southern hemisphere) Deflection is strongest at the surface
Water is pushed offshore by wind and the Coriolis effect, bottom water rises to replace surface water
creates zones of high productivity in oceans
circular ocean movement
Formation of gyres
Corilois effect bends the winds to produce predictable surface wind patterns (e.g. trade winds)
Trade by sail
Ocean currents encouraged what economic activity
What gyres do
move warm water toward poles and cool water towards equator
makes our coastline cooler than it otherwise would be
Water columns can be ____________ or ____________
Temperature, Salinity, Pressure
What 3 things control the density of seawater?
What 3 things control density of water
thermohaline ciruclation relies on this
separate larval, juvenile, and adult stages
What do open populations have?
El nino and La nina conditions
True or False, most of the world's fish species are over exploited
People are going after _______________ and _____________ fishery species
Has global catch peaked?
Common access leads to less accountability
Tragedy of the commons
clock, counter clock
Surface water spins __________wise in the N hemisphere and ________wise in the S hemisphere
The unintended catch of non target species (turtles, seabirds, and shrimp)
What is bycatch?
-Increased demand, exponential increase in human population
-Tragedy of the commons
-Technological innovations (sonar, canning, fishing gear, industrialization)
Why does overfishing occur?
Lost fishing gear that keeps fishing
Large nets and traps
Drift nets can be miles in length
What is ghost fishing?
Are open populations prevalent in oceans?
Their dynamics are driven by external and internal factors, the input of individuals come from outside and local population
Why are they called open populations?
What is the larval mortality rate?
morphologically and behavioral adaptations
How does larvae maximize survival?
Predation, starvation, waste (due to environment)
What are sources of mortality for larvae?
spines, pigments, yolk sacs
larvae morphological adaptations
adults release larvae on high tides, larvae sink to ride incoming currents
larvae behavioral adaptations
dispersal decrease competition with adults, avoids large disturbances, minimize inbreeding, take advantage of planktonic food
Why would offspring disperse?
True or False, most marine species have a dispersal larval stage
mouthbrooders, sharks, skates, and rays
What are marine animals hold on to their offspring?
What are the ocean zones and habitats
involves raising organisms in enclosed controlled areas both freshwater and marine species
What is aquaculture?
Aquaculture accounts for what % of all productions
300 such as shrimp, salmon, oysters, algae
How many species are "farmed" around the world"?
harpoons, fast ships, and factory ships
Modern whaling uses what tools, equipment to fish?
overfishing, wild stocks
Aquaculture can help prevent ________________ of __________________ and environmental destruction
What year did international whaling commission form?
Set non-binding quotas on catch
What did international whaling commission do?
what do you feed them?
where do you put the aquaculture facility?
How do you keep the animals healthy?
What are problems with aquaculture?
What year was moratorium on whaling set?
Japan, Norway, Russia, Iceland, Canada, United States
What are nations that still hunt whales?
small aboriginal groups
Who does International whaling commission allow to whale?
1. An authority to set rules and to enforce them
2. Data on population stock size and distribution
3. A set of rules of restrictions
What do you need to manage a fishery species?
Responsible for all fisheries within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone
National Marine Fisheries Service, what do they do?
Federal, State, and Local levels
On what levels are fisheries managed?
1. Produce a model that accounts for all factors controlling population size (Competition, predation, habitat requirements, population growth rate, FISHING MORTALITY)
2. Calculate maximum sustainable yield
3. Impose restrictions on fishing to limit fishing mortality to acceptable levels
Goals of fishery management
1. Help preserve and restore depleted populations, particularly fishery species
2. Protect and enhance biodiversity
3. Protect special habitats and areas
What is the purpose of Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
MPA may allow a population to serve as a _____________
Does population growth occur at carrying capacity?
yield that reduces a population to where it grows the fastest
What is maximum sustainable yield?
Yes, example is St. Lucia
Do MPAs work?
1. Catch control, limit the amount and sizes that can be taken
2. Effort control, limit who can fish, when, and where
3. Technical measures, restrictions on fishing gear
How do you limit the amount of fish captured?
displace fishermen, ineffective without enforcement
Costs of MPAs
group of scientists, fisherman, conservationists, others decide where MPAs will go
A network of MPAs along entire coast line
What is Marine Life Protection Act
Spiny Lobsters in California control measures
Dynamic ocean management
Dynamic mgmt zones
Innovations in marine protection
Static structures are being used to manage dynamic oceans
What is problem with management
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