600 terms

Praxis II: Technology Education Certification Practice Questions

Raw extraction and harvesting are examples of what?
In the management and planning of preprocessing there are five steps. What are they?
Design, forecasting, processing planning, select & sequence operations
What part of the processing has a purpose that is to minimise production time and costs, efficiently organise the use of resources and maximise efficiency in the workplace?
Production Planning
What is the meaning of Fixed Automation?
A process using mechanized machinery to perform fixed and repetitive operations in order to produce a high volume of similar parts.
What is a compact controller that combines the features and capabilities of a PC-based control system that completes batch order?
Programmable Automation
In the post-processing stages of manufacturing, what is "annealing"?
It softens to relieve stress
In the post-processing stages of manufacturing, what is "hardening"?
Increase wear resistance
In the post-processing stages of manufacturing, what is "tempering"?
It increases hardness
What are factors in the determination of materials selected in the manufacturing process?
Properties, costs, source availability, environmental impact, durability (lasting), Non-durable (consumable)
What are factors in the determination of costs of producing in the manufacturing process?
materials, people, overhead
Ferrous metals have a high iron content & are materials such as what? (4)
iron, steel, stainless steel, magnetic materials
Non-ferrous metals are nonmagnetic substances such as what? (5)
aluminum, copper, alloys, zinc, titanium
What are matrix composites?
holds the reinforcements in an orderly pattern, is continuous & is a lighter material than reinforcement
What is the name of molecular material formed from carbons?
Plastics that are Thermoset are what?
Not able to be remelted
Reusable plastics are known as what?
What are three examples of Natural Polymers?
wood, rubber, leather
What two types of woods are there?
Hardwood- deciduous
Softwood- coniferous
What are the benefits of wood?
it is abundant, renewable, easily-shaped, strong & non-corrosive
Describe what ceramics are made of.
brittle, inert & non-conducting material made from clay
What is it when two or more materials are combined for a useful application?
What are three types of composites?
fiberboards, fiberglass, laminates
What is the goal of mechanical properties?
For the material to be strong enough to support the load
In mechanical properties, what is stress?
Response to external forces
In mechanical properties, what is shear stress?
force parallel to the surface
In mechanical properties, what is tension?
it is the pulling apart
In mechanical properties, what is elasticity?
it is the ability of a structure or object to return to its normal shape
In mechanical properties, what is compression?
it measures the load pushing in against the structure
In mechanical properties, what is torsion?
It is the twisting force against the structure
In mechanical properties, what is ductility?
it is a large deformation before a structure ruptures
In mechanical properties, what is fracture toughness?
Its resists cracking
In mechanical properties, what is fatigue?
is it the static load over a long period or a dynamic load whn a machine is engaged
In mechanical properties, what is hardness?
it is resistance to surface deforming
What are the benefits of product planning in management?
the function of management is to gather information, arrange it, identify solutions and decide on best solutions
What is the purpose of market research studies?
It looks at people's thinking about new products & provides info about customers, products & effective marketing approaches
What is a competitive analysis?
See what their competitors are selling
What is product planning?
It tells you what materials you will need, the processes and equipment, how much it will cost to produce and where the product will be most useful
What are the benefits of product planning?
it produces products that are easy to produce, sell well and increase a profit for a company
What is the process of design analysis?
Functional, specification, ergonomics, market & economic
What is functional process of design analysis?
Does the product meet its goal
What is specifications process of design analysis?
Does it meet the size, weight, speed, strength or accuracy requirements?
What is ergonomics process of design analysis?
What it the products relationship to the human operator
What is market process of design analysis?
Does it meet customer's expectations at the cost charged?
What is the economic process of design analysis?
What is the risk versus the potential profit?
What is a graphical model?
drawings, graphs, charts, diagrams
What is a mathematical model?
It shows relationship between values like electrical & chemical reactions
What is an appearance model?
it shows what the product will look like
What is a mock-up model?
it is made of styrofoam
What is a functional or utility model?
it is an operational model to work out mechanical & electrical systems
What is a prototype model?
Models that function l& look like the finished product
What is a virtual model?
it is a 3-D model created on computer that can be rotationally viewed & tested virtually
What is a rapid prototype model?
It is a printed out 3-D model
In light residential construction what are the processes for preparing the site?
select location, purchase land, clear land, and grade (excavate top soil), plumb lines to building corner stakes (mark it off)
In light residential construction what are the processes for setting the foundation?
Spread the concrete/and or rock, build the footing & foundation wall, use sill plate to connect foundation to the structure
In light residential construction what are the parts for framework? (3 main & 6 sub)
the floor joists carry the weight of the floor, the subfloor, the walls the include the sole plate & studs & top plate, doors, windows & the cripple studs
What is a cripple stud?
(partial studs used for additional support)
Roof framework is made up of?
Rafters, trusses, & sheathing (covering)
What is soffit?
Roof overhand with tiny ventilation holes
Roofing measurements include...
Slope, run & rise of roof
Pine softwood is used mostly for?
Main construction of a structure
Hard woods are used mainly for what in construction?
floors & cabinets
In heavy residential construction what must be done to prep/create a roadway? (8)
survey, clear, set drainage, move utilities, build elevation grade, compact dirt, curbs, concreate or asphalt surface & shoulders
In heavy residential construction what must be done to prep/create a bridges?
use beams, suspension steel cables
What is a beam?
horizontal member
What is supports on a bridge?
vertical members
What is a brace on a bridge?
support posts & beams
What is a joint or gusset on a bridge?
It adds strength to connections
What is a static load?
it is the mass weight of the materials (not moving)
What is a dynamic load?
it is the traveling objects on a structure
What four factors are involved in estimating a build?
number of boards per feet formula= thickness X width X length / 12

area of Floor= length X width

AC volume= length X width X height

Also calculating wages, materials, equipment rentals
What six factors are involved in bidding on a build?
If there is a request or solicitation for a bid.

If the companies are allowed to bid

Have tabulations of the bids- review costs, time & capabilities

Look for notice of awards where they post the winners of the bid

Determine calculations of overhead

Determine gross & net profit
Scheduling of a build can be affected by which factors? (10)
availability of materials, workers, machinery, weather, work stoppages, worker shortages, road access to site, scheduling for utility, power and water rights as well as access & permits
In a house, what voltage of electricity enters the house?
What voltage(s) reaches the outlet?
110V & 220V depending on appliance plugged in
What is a Ground Fault Circuit Indicator (GFCI)?
GFCI monitors the amount of current flowing from hot to neutral. If there is any imbalance, it trips the circuit.
What is potable water?
Drinking water
What is wastewater?
water from toilets, sinks, baths
What is sewer gas?
mixture of toxic and non-toxic gases that can be present at varying levels depending upon the source.
What is the purpose of sink traps?
To keep sewer gases from flowing back up the line & to "trap" heavy objects to limit what flows through the rest of the line
What are types of climate control utilities?
heater, furnaces, fireplaces, airconditioning & heat pumps
What are seven types of communication utilities?
telephone, radio, television, FIOS fiber optics, intercoms, wireless routers, alarm systems
What are safety precautions related to student movement within the lab to consider? (4)
obstacles, sharp edges, access to doors * work areas
What are safety precautions related to dirty areas within the lab to consider? (5)
shop & lab equipment, boxes on floor, clutter, sawdust, electric cables
What are safety precautions related to dangers within the lab to consider? (7)
power equipment, hand tools, dangerous chemicals, high voltages, poorly guarded equipment, questionable electric hook-ups, crowded work areas
OSHA covers rules on...
equipment work zones
MSDS stands for...
material safety data sheets
What does red stand for on the safety color code?
fire equipment
What does orange stand for on the safety color code?
exposed cutting edges, gears, chemical storage units
What does yellow stand for on the safety color code?
aisles markings, barricades, stairs
What does green stand for on the safety color code?
first aid kits, safety bulletins boards
What does blue stand for on the safety color code?
electrical controls, warning signs
What does black & white stand for on the safety color code?
tool panels, storage areas
What does yellow & black stand for on the safety color code?
safety zones marked around equipment
Why establish student guidelines for lab safety issues concerning tool condition?
they must be inspected to ensure safely working
What do you do to establish student guidelines for lab safety issues concerning machines?
make sure they are set-up correctly & maintained. if broke, label machine as out of service & unplug
What are student safety lab issues? (8)
tool condition, machine set-up, machine safety, operator zones, machine guards in place, waste containers for specific items, electric (solder irons & extension cords), & airborne contaminants
What are types of personal protective equipment? (8)
face guards, leg guards, arm guards, lab smocks, gloves, hearing ear plugs, helmets, & eye wear
What is casting?
pouring hot metal liquids into molds
What are problems associated with casting? (2)
extreme heat, chemical burns
If extreme heat & chemical burns are problems from casting(pouring liquid into molds), what are solutions?
wearing gloves & eye wear
ITEA began the Technology for All American Project when? And what did they release in 2000?
1994; Standards for Technological Literacy
What is Social Reconstruction?
right society's wrongs with socially conscious projects
What is Intellectual Processes?
It focuses solely on higher level cognitive processes
What is Personal Relevance?
it builds self-esteem and human dignity
Identify 10 career goals/attributes promoted by Technology Education.
small work teams
problem solving
design through brainstorming
communication skills (verbal, written, electronic)
flexibility in learning about technology
knowing how to research problems
infusion of academic skills (math, science, language arts)
exposure to variety of careers
2009 in Florida- Industry certification in field
What is the objective of technical skills training?
to develop skills proficiency
What is the objective of pedagogical training?
to develop teaching/learning and research skills
Technical Development covers which three areas?
procedural training on equipment, software applications & theories.
Professional development covers which 3 areas?
inservice training on improving instructional strategies, classroom management & learning
Modular Education follows which 4 steps?
intro concepts
basic skills development
final project
What is situated learning?
based on the view that course work & projects should be positioned in the context of real world of work
In the cognitive learning process, what is Ideation?
Formal conceptualizing of ideas- students write out procedures used in design process
What is a Knowledge Box?
It is a table that states what is Known & Unknown related to the problem, processes, content & skills
What is Meta-Design?
students mentally construct and analyze the entire design
What is Discovery Learning?
identifying new knowledge, insights & realizations in the context of active modes of inquiry-
What is constructivism? 3 components
Knowledge is constructed by the learner, not acquired by transmission from the teacher, active engagement, building on prior knowledge
How does Tech Ed emphasize constructivism? (3)
a. authentic contextual work
b. interdisciplinary curriculum
c. collaborative learning
What is Heterogenous grouping?
mixed groups- special need with non-special need
What is Homogenous grouping?
only special needs
What is a Design Portfolio?
delivery system for documenting progress & student reflection
What is a Design Brief?
intro or frame a problem to be solved
What is Teaching Learning Activities?
one period hands-on activity that promotes the basic design & create attributes of technology
What is the focus of teaching learning activities?
competition, quick brainstorming, use of materials, team work
What are components of Authentic Contextual Learning?
integrating real-world experience & academics to better learn what is taught within the context of actual experience
What are Cognitive Apprenticeships?
takes the apprenticeship idea of learning skills of a trade from an expert & apply it to learning in school to create a culture of learning that should match the culture of the experts
What is grafting?
section of a stem with a leaf- bud is inserted into the stock of another tree
What is propagation?
Producing offspring or multiplying
What is budding?
specific type of grafting with a side of a plant is reduced to a single bud
what is layering?
taking a portion of a stem/root that is still attached to another stalk & is buried to act as a root on a new plant
What are the areas of technology knowledge? (7)
Agricultural, construction, energy, information & communication, medical, manufacturing & transportation
What are the actions that are taken when Technological needs are identified?
1. DESIGN & engineering starts with needs of people in mind
2. PRODUCE products & systems
3. products MEET demand
4. ASSESS product & impact
What is divergent thinking?
Thinking outside the box- creative thinking to find as many solutions as possible to a single problem
What is convergent thinking?
thinking that seeks to limit & narrow focus of ideas to come up with one feasible solution
What are Resistors?
they control the flow of current through a circuit- the greater the objects resistance the less electricity that flow through
How are resistors measures?
In Ohms
What is an example of a resistor?
light bulb
What is a transistor?
it lets a small amount of current control the flow of a much larger amount of current
A transistor controls storage of a small amount of electricity and does what with it?
sends it out like a charge to a represent info-like a computer does
What is an example of a transistor?
Electric motor
What replaced vacuum tubes in 1947?
What is the name of the first computer?
ENIAC (Electric Numerical Integrator and Computer)
What was the ENIAC ?
1st electronic computer, developed by the Army in WWII and used 18,000 vacuum tubes
What was the size of the ENIAC?
10 feet tall, 3 feet deep and 100 feet long
What is Binary Code?
Computers are digital & use 1 and 0 to represent info
How are binary codes organized?
into groups of 8 bits
Eight bits is known as what?
a byte
How many characters does each BYTE represent?
What is the main reason for technological development?
What is problem solving?
a process that begins with a problem & ends with a solution
What are 4 types of problem solving processes?
research & development
What is the five step invention process?
1. identify problem
2. collect info
3. think of solutions
4. experiment
5. rework
What is Innovations mean?
process of altering an existing product or system to improve it
How do innovations impact inventions?
Innovations make inventions more useful
What is adaptation?
When inventions are used other than as intended
What are primary processes?
Mechanical, thermal & chemical
What does standard stock mean?
materials produced in a standard size
What are secondary processes in manufacturing?
separating, forming, casting/molding, conditioning, assembling, finishing, testing
What is the purpose of the Manufacturing Systems?
used to make products for everyday use
What is custom manufacturing?
one person or a few people are used to create a product
What is the oldest manufacturing system?
Custom manufacturing
What is intermittent manufacturing?
Making several products in batches
What is continuous manufacturing?
products are made by moving down the production line with parts or specific tasks being completed at each station on the line
What is flexible manufacturing?
using complex machines and computers and can produce small lots like intermittent but uses continuous manufacturing actions
What is the most modern manufacturing system?
Flexible manufacturing
What are the 4 steps in the communication process?
encoding, transmitting, receiving, decoding
What is encoding in the communication process?
changes the form of a message into code that can be sent out
What is transmitting in the communication process?
sending signals in a form that can travel over a distance
What is receiving in the communication process?
message must arrive at the destination/ to pick up communication signals
What is decoding in the communication process?
puts meaning to the message, converts into a meaningful form
What does storage & retrieval mean?
at any point in process, message can be stored (audio, video, & then taken out and reneters the communication process
What are outputs?
results obtained by operating a system
What are intended/desired outputs?
the reason the system was designed- helps to ease the life of the product user
What are 3 undesirable/unintended outputs?
scrap, waste, pollution
What is feedback?
Set to ensure what is happening is the desired outcome
What is closed loop system?
uses feedback built into the device to monitor conditions
what is an example of a closed loop system?
an air conditioner
What is an open looped system?
human intervention is needed
what is an example of an open loop system?
an automobile
In an automobile, what provides the feedback?
The pressure of the person driving foot
What is mechanical drafting?
plans that lay out in detail how to build/design a mechanical or manufactured product
What is electrical drafting?
plans that detail & describe electrical systems in a building
What is architectural drafting?
creates buildings & structures to meet specific requirements- floor plans, wall sections
What is a rough sketch?
freehand, quick visual
What is a crafting drawing?
working from box-like geometric shapes
What is ideation in design?
freehand to communicate with designer only
What is a thumbnail?
small 3" X 3" w/several on one page
What is an Orthographic working drawing?
drawings with a front & top view
What is a pictorial working drawing?
three dimensional
What are isometric sketches?
a type of pic which shows front, top, sides of object- as the eye would see it- 360
What are oblique sketches?
only side view is 360, unlike in isometric
What is a perspective sketch?
used in making refined sketches- show how object looks to eye
Auxiliary View means what?
other views to show depth or projected incline or oblique plane
What are section views in design?
Objects or prototypes that split in half to show inside
What are the 4 steps to designing & building prototype & visual models?
visualization, sketch it out, presentation drawing, model
In drafting, what is a T-Square?
2 pieces that are made of a head & a blade that are perpendicular to each other
In drafting, what are Triangles?
they contain varied degrees of triangles & corners
What does a compass do in drafting?
create circles & arcs
What is a scale in drafting?
used to make measurements
What is an Architect's Scale?
parallel rules that show 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 & 3/4 in foot lengths
What is a civil engineer scale?
it is used for drawings measuring feet to inches
What is a Mechanical Drafting Scale?
has a side for full scale, another divided in 1/16 of an inch & sides for 1/8, 1/4. 1/2, 3/4
What is engineering?
use knowledge of physical & mechanical principles, as well as mathematics to design processes, products & structures
What are the 6 principles of design?
Balance, Asymmetry, Contrast, Unity, Rhythm, Proportion
What nine factors does Engineering Design take into consideration?
safety, reliability, economy, quality control, environment, manufacturability, maintenance, ergonomics, optimization
What are 5 types of engineering models?
graphic, mathematical, conceptual, computer models, physical
What is Fluid Power?
When gases or liquids are put under pressure, they can control & transmit fluid power
What is Pneumatic power?
Fluid power produced by using pressurized gases (air)
What type of system is Pneumatic power?
Open loop system
What is Hydraulic Power?
Putting liquids under pressure (liquids return to reservoir)
What type of system is Hydraulic Power?
Closed Loop system
What is Boyle's Law?
the rate of PRESSURE & the volume is always constant
According to Boyle's law, if there is more pressure there is ______ volume.
According to Boyle's law, if there is less pressure there is ______ volume.
What is Pascal's Law?
When pressure is placed on liquid in a container it will disperse equally
When you step on a ballon and the air is dispersed to the rest of the ballon, that is an example of what law?
Pascal's Law
What is Bernoulli's principle?
When liquid picks up speed, the pressure decreases
What is AC Energy?
Alternating Currents
What does AC Energy do?
the current periodically changes direction- back & forth with any type of voltage source
The direction of current flowing through a power line changes direction how often?
60 times per second or frequency per hertz
What is DC energy?
Direct Currents
What does DC Energy do?
it flows from only one direction
What are amperages?
its the flow of electrons/ electrical current that exists when a number of electrons move past a given point in one second
Ammeter shows what?
Amps in a circuit
Voltage causes electrical current to do what?
Flow in the wire- the pressure at the meeting place
EMF stands for what?
ElectroMotive Force
What is EMF?
Electrical Pressure
What is Ohm's Law to find Current?
Current (I)= Voltage (V)/Resistor (R)
What is Ohm's Law to find Voltage?
Voltage (V)= Current (I) * Resistance (R)
What is Ohm's Law to find Resistance?
Resistance (R)= Voltage (V)/Current (I)
What is Kirchoff's Current Law?
Total current or charge entering a junction is equal to the charge leaving the junction:

I (exiting) + I (entering)=0
Kirchoff's Voltage Law is what?
In any closed loop network, the total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop.
What are thermal properties?
material reaction to heat/cool
What is thermal expansion?
When heated, most materials expand, becoming longer & wider
What is thermal conductivity?
To what level a material allows heat to move through it
The higher the level of conductivity the ____________ the heat moves through the material.
What is electricity?
the flow of electrons from one atom to another
What is static electricity?
Atoms build up extra electrons & they are ready to jump to the next atom
What is a circuit?
the pathway electricity takes
What is amperage?
Strength of electrical current
What is voltage?
pressure that pushes electricity through an electrical circuit
Resistance __________ when a component is added to a circuit.
What are conductors?
Materials that contain atoms & have a very weak hold of their electrons
What are examples of conductors?
copper, aluminum, gold, silver
What are electrical conductors?
highways for electricity to travel
What are insulators?
Materials that contain atoms that have a very tight hold on their electrons
What are examples of insulators?
rubber, plastic, ceramic
In electricity, what are insulators?
Roadblocks for electricity
What are semiconductors?
Materials that can act as either conductors or insulators made from silicon in sand
Without these, most technology would not exist.
What is semiconductors
What is a superconductor?
it has no measurable resistance to electricity
Superconductors do what for electrical power?
Make it possible to generate more productive & efficient electrical power
Which bridge has a curved structure?
arch bridge
What is the purpose of the arch design?
provides strength by exerting force downwards & sideways against the abutments
What is a Bascule bridge?
hinged bridge that acts like a seesaw
Which bridge has deck supported by cables directly attached to towers?
What is a Cantilever bridge?
similar to beam, it gets support for counterbalanced beams meeting in the mid of bridge
Which bridge has a deck that hangs from wires & attaches to thick cables that pass over the towers and are anchored to anchorages?
What is a truss bridge?
beam bridge reinforced by triangular shapes
What is the load on a bridge?
the weight
What is the force on a bridge?
The pull of the load
What is the stress on a bridge?
Force that distorts
What is the compression on a bridge?
Force that shortens, pushes & squeezes bridge
What is tension on a bridge?
It lengthens or stretches
What is torsion on a bridge?
the strain from material being twisted
What is buckle on a bridge?
when it bends under pressure
What is a Dead Load?
The weight of the structure
What is a live load?
the weight of the traffic using weight
What is the environmental load?
the weight from nature
A microphone is...
An acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal
Dynamic microphones work from
electromagnetic induction. They are robust, relatively inexpensive and resistant to moisture. This, coupled with their potentially high gain before feedback, makes them ideal for on-stage use.
This type of mic is a thin, usually corrugated metal ribbon suspended in a magnetic field.
Ribbon Mic
The most popular type of mic is what?
the condenser mic.
Which microphone's response is generally considered to be a perfect sphere in three dimensions?
omnidirectional microphone
Since the omnidirectional mic picks up from three sides, would a larger one or a smaller one work and why?
A smaller one because it gives the best omnidirectional characteristics at high frequencies.
The most common unidirectional mic is what?
the cardioid mic
What is the cardioid named for?
The sensitivity pattern is heart-shaped
A hyper-cardioid microphone is similar to a cardioid but varies by...
a tighter area of front sensitivity and a smaller lobe of rear sensitivity.
Lapel mic is short for...
lavalier microphone
The most highly directional mic is the...
shotgun mic
Which mic connector is a style of electrical connector, primarily found on professional audio, video, and stage lighting equipment. The connectors are circular in design and have between 3 and 7 pins?
The XLR connector
What's a computer printer for printing vector graphics?
Vector graphics are
the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygon(s), which are all based on mathematical expressions, to represent images in computer graphics.
What is a digitizer?
a device for converting analogue signals into digital signals.
A scanner is
A device for examining, reading, or monitoring something, in particular.
In traditional photography, what are some characteristics of camera composition?
Avoid "floating heads", Give "look-space"/ walking room, Eye placement(thirds), Avoid Distractions, Headroom
In a darkroom, what are the nine steps?
pre-soak, develop, agitate, water bath, stop bath, fix, after bath, wash, dry
LASER stands for
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Laser Imaging uses what type of light?
coherent or monochromatic light
What effects the color emitted in a laser image?
the gases used
What should a design be based on?
The purpose, the audience analysis and resources available
What happens to designed messages?
They go through encoding stages to convert them to electrical signals for processing
What is the purpose of a piece?
The reason for action to meet our basic needs
Providing basic information is a way to...
Communication that is used to manipulate or direct machines is this type.
What is structural on a vehicle?
The part of the vehicle that hold other vehicular systems & the loads they carry
On a land vehicle, what are some examples of structural systems?
the frame, the chassis, or a railroad car shape
On a water vehicle, what are some examples of structural systems?
keel, double hull
On an air vehicle, what is an example of a structural system?
Which part of the vehicle is supported or suspended in the environment?
The suspension
On a land vehicle, which part would be the suspension?
the tires, springs, shocks, magnetic force
On a water vehicle, which part would be the suspension?
hull, air cushion
On an air vehicle, which part would be the suspension?
tires, air, landing gear, wings
What is propulsion?
The components that produce the power needed to move the vehicle.
What are some types or examples of guidance, something that provides info required by a vehicle to follow a particular path or perform a certain task on land?
Navigation, Speed indicators, GPS, telematics
What are some types or examples of guidance, something that provides info required by a vehicle to follow a particular path or perform a certain task on water?
visual, LORAN, radar, GPS, geocaching
What are some types or examples of guidance, something that provides info required by a vehicle to follow a particular path or perform a certain task in the air?
visual flight rules, instrument flight rules, instrument landing systems
What are some types or examples of guidance, something that provides info required by a vehicle to follow a particular path or perform a certain task in space?
Deep Space Network
The part of the vehicle that changes speed or direction is what?
the control
The control, or part of a vehicle that changes speed or direction is known as what on a helicopter?
Degrees of freedom: 1, 2, 3
The control, or part of a vehicle that changes speed or direction is known as what on a car?
Acceleration, deceleration, steering
The control, or part of a vehicle that changes speed or direction is known as what on a water vehicle?
the rudder, the jet nozzle direction
The control, or part of a vehicle that changes speed or direction is known as what on a plane? (5)
wings, flaps, ailerons, rudder affects yaw, pitch roll
What is support on a vehicle?
the structures on which vehicles travel and the facilities used
On land, the supports, or structure on which vehicles travel and the facilities are used are?
roads, tracks, bridges, tunnels, terminals, maintenance
On water, the supports, or structure on which vehicles travel and the facilities are used are?
harbor, port, canals, ship lanes
In the air, the supports, or structure on which vehicles travel and the facilities are used are?
air zones, terminals
In space, the supports, or structure on which vehicles travel and the facilities are used are?
launch pad, Orbiter Process Center, Mission Control
The five categories of transportation are...
land, water, air, space, intermodal
What forces act on an airplane?
Thrust, drag, gravity and lift
What is the name of a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers?
Automated Guided Vehicle
The Cartesian coordinate system is what?
It is the graphing system we use. XY axis and were they cross- out creates Z
What is the main difference between polar coordinates & the Cartesian coordinate system?
polar co-ordinates use one distance and one angle to describe the position of a point rather than the two distances in the Cartesian system.
Which coordinates relate to the X and Y axes and the origin of the current co-ordinate system?
absolute coordinates
What is a relative co-ordinate of a graph?
It relates to the current pick point on the graph
What is it when machines are programmed to run through an encoded program on a storage medium, rather than manually or mechanically via cams alone?
Numerical control
What is the manufacturing process where computer numerically controlled tools that move in 4 or more ways are used to manufacture parts out of metal or other materials by milling away excess material, by water jet cutting or by laser cutting?
Multi-axis machining
What is a spindle on a machine?
a rotating axis of the machine, which often has a shaft at its heart
What is absolute positioning?
When many or all of the coordinates on the print are dimensioned from one fixed point. That point is the XY zero position or absolute zero.
What is incremental positioning?
When the print show dimensions going from one location to the next. Dimensions given from the tools current position to the next location.
What is point to point positioning?
A type of control system where no cutting takes place during the movement of the tool from one position to the next.
What is the physical property of materials?
How it interacts with different forms of energy, color, etc.
What are the Mechanical Properties of materials?
Torsion, tension, compression, shear, strain, hardness, fatigue
What are the Chemical Properties of materials?
composition, corrosion, resistance, flammability
What are the Thermal Properties of Materials?
Expansion, conductivity
What are the Electrical Properties of Materials?
conductivity, resistivity, capacitance
What is the Magnetic Property of materials?
Field density
What is the Acoustical property of materials?
Carries sound waves
What is the optical properties of materials?
luminescence, transmission, refraction, reflectivity, absorption
What are Primary Processes?
a. obtaining raw materials
b. producing useable industrial materials
What are Secondary Processes?
a. casting and molding
b. forming
c. separating
d. conditioning
e. assembling
f. finishing
Cutting, sawing, shearing, tearing, drilling, boring, planning and abrasive machining are all examples of what Secondary Manufacturing Process?
Bending, shaping, stamping, dies, rolling, bending, drawing and squeezing are all examples of what type of Secondary Manufacturing Process?
Which Secondary Manufacturing Process changes materials internally by heating and/or cooling?
Gluing, riveting, using fasteners, joints, welding, solder, nails, screws and interference fits are are apart of what type of Secondary Manufacturing Process?
When you paint, varnish, polish, coat, glaze or electrostatic spray, which one of the Secondary Manufacturing Processes is this?
Composites are:
tailored materials to meet specific needs, hand layup, pressure rolling, filament winding, compression molding, sheet molding, compacting
Thermoforming plastic is what?
Using heat to shape them
Blow-molding is ...
manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed.
What are the raw materials of plastics?
synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are moldable
organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances
usually synthetic, commonly derived from petrochemicals, many are partially natural.
What preservatives were used to pressure treat wood?
Arsenic, chromium, copper
Pressure treated wood that was/is treated with arsenic, chromium and copper are refereed to as what?
A Manufacturing System that produces ONE at a time is...
Custom production
Batch production is...
intermittent primary processing
When products are manufactured continuously it is known as...
Continuous manufacturing or mass production
When they only produce a limited quantity of goods and items are manufactured in a group when an order is place is known as
intermittent manufacturing (job lot)
This manufacturing style eliminates the need for huge product storage because parts are only ordered when needed and items are only manufactured when ordered
Just-In-Time Manufacturing
What is flexible manufacturing?
Different versions of the same product can be manufactured with ease & minimal changes in this computer based system
What manufacturing system uses computers to operate factory machinery?
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
Computer Integrated Manufacturing is...
1 central computer that controls most factory functions; such as scheduling, production controls, marketing, sales
If there is an increased emphasis on quality control & flexibility in manufacturing, this is what type of manufacturing system?
Lean Manufacturing
If a factory is run without people, it is...
Automated Production
Input means to...
something put into the system
What role do people play in the input process?
They operate the systems and utilize their artistic & technical design skills.
What do people do with new information or knowledge?
They apply it to the product in order to assess the value and find ways to improve the product. The info base is constantly growing.
What is capital in a communication system?
Tools and machines used in system- computers, darkrooms, tv studio devices)
Encoding means...
Preparing a message to be sent, it converts the message into codes or symbols, such as high frequency radio waves, computer languages, photographic images, shorthand.
When a message is placed on a medium so it is sent to a receiver, that is called?
Transmitting- examples of items that transmit are: emails, paper, flashdrive, fax messages, cell calls, television
In the communication system, a message that is downloaded from a medium is...
Decoding is...
The symbols & Codes are understandable.
Electronic communication reception detects the signal coming through the air or wire and then
converts the signal into a format that is useful for people.
When a signal is distorted because of undesired signals (noise), mechanical or electrical occurrence it is called...
What are examples of items that store information that can later be retrieved?
Books, magazines, jump drives, video tapes/DVD, CD
Files listed on a computer hard drive, a telephone book, an internet hyperlink, a table of contents, a menu, a video counter log all are what type of system?
What is feedback?
It determines if a message got through or if intended message was received
A system that is connected by communication lines that move information from one device to another, that is called...
A Network
Which type of computer memory is best for holding permanent written instructions?
Read Only Memory ROM
RAM or Random Access Memory does what?
Stores data as it is needed
Where can a copy of data read from RAM be found in one place, making it readily accessible?
What is it called when someone is able to send out a message through various mediums and reach the attention of a lot of people at once? The medium has to have the ability to reach a large audience.
Mass Communication
What is individual communication?
one person
Examples: home visit, office calls. personal letters, etc.
Advertising is...
Targeted communication
What is data processing?
process involving computers which converts raw data into useful and logical information, which is then also considered as knowledge based data
When the data is processed, converted and formatted in a word document, that is called...
Word processing
What are graphics?
Visual communications
Types of graphics are:
Technical drawings, printed materials, such as: photos, billboards, brochures, posters
When sending audio and video over long distances, it is known as:
Electronic Communications
What is a lowercase letter that has a part extending above other lowercase letters called?
What is a descender in lettering?
The part of the lowercase letters, such as g, p, and q, that extends below the other lowercase letters.
Strokes in lettering are...
the vertical, horizontal, and curvilinear movements made by yourhand as you draw letters
What is the slant of a letter?
In lettering, what are the small strokes that project out? Example: T
What is another name for novelty fonts?
Typeface is described as...
A particular design of type
What is the name of lettering technique that tries to mimic cursive writing?
In lettering, the term "point" means what?
The size of letters
When trying to create a headline, what would be the best font size to use?
14 or larger
In the body of a copy or work, the best font size to use is?
10-12 point
What is line spacing?
The vertical distance from base line to next in points
The line length is described as...
the number of letters on horizontal line. Letters can be squeezed together
The line length is measured in what?
What is it called in traditional art copy, when the graphic is composed of lines and dots handled by vector or object-oriented artwork?
Line copy
What is continuous tone copy?
Image in which colors and shades of gray smoothly merge into the neighboring colors or shades, instead of producing distinct, sharply-outlined areas of color or shade.
Continuous tone copy pictures are easier to edit but...
Use more file space
an open system lossy compression (loses some of its size and compresses to 5% of original
TIFF means...
Tagged Image File Format & loses less of the image and works with pixels
PDF or a Portable Document Format does what?
Uses distillation process where digital documents are viewable & independent of specific software
What are the principles of design?
Rhythm- Deals with the flow of communication & produces a sense of motion & guides the eye to an important feature

Dominance- message or graphic stands out

Unity- how entire piece flows together

Variety- number of differing elements

Emphasis- center point of graphic

Proportion- deals with size of design & height, width relationship

Contrast- emphasizes portions of message/difference between light & dark/abrupt transitions

Balance- info on both sides of centerline appear equal in visual height

Harmony- blending parts of design to make a pleasing message
What does prepress mean?
It is everything that must be done to get a job ready for press
When software packs & unpacks data for transmission & storage it is known as?
Layout of prepress is:
The physical act of designing the message, positioning the copy & illustrations to form a message
What are the three steps in the traditional pre-press process?
1.) Striping- process of assembling all pieces of film containing images that will be carried on the same printing plate and then securing them to a masking sheet.

2.) Flat- assembled masking sheet with film pieces- use of orange tape & opaque ink to mask areas

3.) Proofing- paste-up or mechanical
What are the six steps in the digital pre-press process?
1.) Digitalization- conversion of analog images into pixels & bitmaps

2.) Adobe Postscript- page description language that translates text & most images into mathematical vectors that can be output to compatible devices.

3.) Adobe Postscript Driver- Converts files into code

4.) Raster Image Processor- converts code to recreate image. Very large file is uneditable.

5.) Screening- raster image converted into bitmaps affected by resolution

6.) Output files- screen, print, press (high end)
Of the major printing processes, which one is the oldest of all printing processes & uses images on a raised surface & is pressed against the substrate?
Relief printing
What is lithographic or offsetting printing?
most often used printing method, is based on the principle oil & water don't mix, it is pile fed or continuous
This is the opposite of relief printing & message is chemically etched or scribed into the surface of the image carrier is...
Gravure printing
This uses a stencil with openings that are the shape of the message & makes t-shirts, glasses & circuit boards.
It is screen printing
This uses a special machine with a drum- like a copier to print.
Electro static printing
Home printers are known as
Ink-jet printing
After it is printed, the finishing processes are what? 5 main & 6 sub
Cutting, folding, letterpress (perforating, creasing, embossing, die cutting, hot foil stamping, numbering) assembling, binding
What are types of copyrighted works?
music, text, pictures, video
Original work is not protected. T or F
If a piece is older than 75 years old it is considered what?
public domain & is free to use
Royalty free means what?
that it is a pay license fee to use
When you can use a portion of material one time for educational use, that is known as what?
Fair Use Doctrine
What does HTML stands for?
Hypertext Markup Language
HTML is what?
A set of codes or tags
What does URL Stands for?
Uniform Resource Locator
What do RTSP files play?
while the file is downloading
What do HTTP files play?
after the file is downloaded
Decibels means?
loudness measurement
Hertz means:
frequency of waves per second
What is the Act established in 1984 that aimed to increase the quality of technical education?
Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act
What is a Bezier tool?
It allows you to create complex objects quickly and simply. It looks like two anchor points and a pen.
Heat trapped in a car is like what type of effect?
It is like the greenhouse effect. The solar energy enters through the window and is absorbed into the dash & seats. It is then re-emitted as thermal energy but is trapped in the car by the windows.
What is the difference between equilibrium and the center of gravity?
Equilibrium is the balance between opposing forces & between any powers. Center of gravity is the point at which all of the weight of an object appears to be concentrated.
What is an integrated circuit?
An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors.
How do integrated circuits function?
As an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory
What is a hydraulics system?
Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid. The fluid is almost always an oil of some sort. The force is almost always multiplied in the process.
What are hydraulic pistons?
An actuation device that makes use of a pressurized hydraulic fluid is known as a hydraulic pump. This mechanism is used for producing in linear motion and force in applications that transfer power.
What is Pascal's Law?
Pressure exerted at any point on a confined liquid is transmitted undiminished in all directions.
What does pneumatic mean?
It deals with the study and application of pressurized gas to affect mechanical motion.
What is a T-square used for?
Straight and accurate drawing of horizontal lines requires a T-square.
ITEA stands for
International Technology Education Association
If car air runs hot, check:
owner's manual for levels, refrigerant leak or not absorbing the heat, condenser clogged
#9 Epoxy glue is best for which materials:
Metal to Metal or Plastic to Metal
Aluminum is magnet. True or False
Dovetail Joint is
an edge that combines two pieces of wood that have been cut to interlock with each other.
What is Fish Tape?
A tool that is used by electricians to pull wires through electrical conduit.
A rating scale that uses questionnaires is known as a
Likert Scale
A formative assessment is
is part of the process. Allows instruction to be modified based on needs at the moment
A summative assessment is
given at certain points of time to test understanding.
What is a written document that shows the need for desired results from a design?
A Design Brief
Nanotechnology is
the smallest scale that we can manipulate within. Items can change form when they are a nano-meter. In bulk form they might not be able to transfer electricity but might in the smaller form
What are devices that measure signals, processes data from that signal & integrates with wireless networks to transmit that data?
Smart Sensors
An Architect's Scale has how many scales on it?
Eleven (11)
A scale that is in decimals of an inch is a
Civil Engineer's Scale
What is a French Curve?
A drafting tool that is used to draw smooth curves of varying radii
An architectural design machine that is portable and has varying measurements on it is what?
A Track-type drafting machine
Orthographic is what view?
This view includes the Isometric & is the point or edge closest to the viewer
An Oblique view is what?
The side closest to the viewer
When the ends go to a vanishing point, that is known as what?
Pictorial view is what?
A life-like exploded view
This is used by the packaging industry to show inclined or oblique planes. What is it?
Auxiliary View
What is section view?
The object is split in 1/2 to see inside
When a prototype or virtual model looks like a finished product, it is known as what?
An appearance model
When a prototype proves that functions work, it is known as what?
An operational model
This type of model is constructed of lines in space.
A Wireframe Model
In CAD, what is FILLET?
a concave easing of an interior corner, small rounded internal corner
In CAD, what is CHAMFER?
A rounding of an exterior corner, beveled outside edge
The Ortho command on CAD limits what?
the movement of the cursor to horizontal & vertical directions.
An oscilloscope does what?
it is an instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages
What is a device used to measure electrical resistance?
An ohmmeter
The Army Corp of Engineer Research & Development Center does what?
conducts extensive environmental research in wetland systems & is the center for wetlands expertise
Ethics related to Engineering can be found where?
In state codes & Professional Association codes of ethics
What is the concept that recognizes the broadest spectrum of human ability in the design of all products?
Universal Design
What is Reverse Engineering?
Taking apart products to see how they work
What is Industrial Design?
inventing, innovating a product that marries form to function; meets stated safety requirements
What is it to create an item to primarily meet specific functional requirements?
Engineering Design
What is Engineering Design?
the process of devising a system, component or process to meet a desired need
Creating a building or structure to meet a stated purpose is known as what?
Architectural Design
What is Concurrent Design?
Product development in which tasks are done at the same time & there is an early consideration for all aspects of the product's development
On what level do Nanomachines work?
the cellular level
What does planting traditional crops next to genetically engineering crops do?
Increases disease resistance
When one part of DNA is cut from one species and inserted into a plasmid to make multiple copies, that is known as what?
Recombinant DNA
Why is Recombinant DNA possible?
All DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure; they differ only in the sequence of nucleotides within that identical overall structure
The growing and cultivating of trees is known as what?
What is Monoculture?
the production of a single crop in a given area
What is Plant Cell Culture?
Growth of plant cells or roots of plants in tank in which cells carry out a biological reaction
The mass production of plants from small amounts of cells or tissue is known as what?
What is the process that cools cells to low subzero temperatures?
Kinetic energy is
energy in motion
Stored energy is known as
potential energy
Heat energy is
energy transferred by raditation (light)
Energy that is stored in a substance is known as
Chemical Energy
Energy that uses that earth's hot gases at the surface is known as
Thermal energy
What is Fluid Energy?
It uses gas, liquid or combination to transfer power.
Which energy is produced by simple or complex machines & is powered by tides, falling water & wind?
Mechanical Energy
What is Mechanical Advantage?
How many times a simple machines multiplies the force applied to it
What is FORCE?
any cause that tends to produce or modify motion
What is the application of force that moves an object a certain distance known as?
The amount of work done over a period of time is known as what?
What is the flow measurement used in mechanical, fluid, electrical & thermal systems?
What is the ability to produce current over a period of time?
What are terms connected to Steam engines?
Turbine, blades, spin, axle
What are terms connected to Diesel engines?
Compression- uses extreme heat of compressed air/higher compression ratio- difference in the volume of the compression chamber is at bottom dead center compared to volume at top dead center.
What are terms connected to an Internal Combustion engine?
two stroke & four stroke piston engines, combustion chamber, valves, exhaust, stroke, crankshaft
What are terms connected to hydraulic engines?
Electric pump, valves, inlet & outlet ports, reservoir, pressure indicators, piston, heat exchangers, filters, control devices, actuators
What are terms connected pneumatic engines?
Compressor, conditioning, load device- cylinder
What are terms connected to electrical engines?
Generators change mechanical energy into electrical/DC generator uses revolving field coils connected to circuits by slip rings & brushes/Control-voltage regulation/AC generator- prime mover turns shaft with 3 phase power output
What are terms connected to Jet engines?
Turbojet/ Turbofan/ Turboprop
What are terms connected to Rocketry?
Rocket propulsion
oxidizers for use above Earth's atmosphere, Solid-fuel: fuel mix burns at set rate
Liquid-fuel: NASA rockets use this
Inert Gas Jets- small jets that emit nitrogen gas ion
This uses super-cooled, superconducting magnets vibrating 400,000 times per second. If this rapid pulse can be directed in one direction, it could create a very efficient space propulsion system with the ability to achieve speeds on the order of a fraction of 1 percent of the speed of light. What is it?
Electromagnetic Propulsion
What are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into heat & electricity?
Fuel Cells
What is a fuel cell?
a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction
How does a battery work?
converts chemical energy into electrical
Dielectrics do what?
Store electricity for later use
What is the name of the current in wire that produces a magnetic field around it?
An inductor is:
a magnetic field that can induce current in wire
The magnetic field that produces resistance to a current is known as:
Inductance- magnet must be moved mechanically to create current
The total opposition to AC Current is a circuit with resistance & reactance is known as:
When an RCL circuit is tuned to a set frequency, that is known as what?
A based that serves as a prototype of electronics is known as what?
a breadboard
Printed circuit boards are used to
mechanically & electronically connect circuits
The opposition to current & voltage are known as?
In a AC Motor, the primary winding is done by the
Stator or the stationary rotor system
Microcontrollers are programmable what?
Integrated Circuits
What are fiber optics?
transmission of digital or analog signals by light
Which type of motor runs with continuous feedback? DC Servo or Step Motor?
DC Servo Motor
Which type of motor moves incrementally? DC Servo or Step Motor?
A DC Step Motor
What consists of a resistor and an inductor, (magnetic field that can induce current in wire) either in series or in parallel, and is driven by a voltage source?
An RL Circuit
What is a RC Circuit?
resistors and capacitors (used to store voltage for later use) driven by a voltage or current source
An RCL Circuit is made up of what?
It is an AC Circuit that has resistors, capacitors & inductors
Whar are semiconductors that pass electrons through in one direction?
This uses germanium crystal for instant circuitry power. What is it?
What is the Law of Conservation?
Energy can be neither created or destroyed, but converted from one form to another
What measures electrical Resistance?
What is used to detect and measure small electric current?
This is used to measure the voltage of a video signal in a given time.
Waveform Monitor
What is tension?
Pulling something apart
What is torsion?
the action of twisting or the state of being twisted, esp. of one end of an object relative to the other.
What is shear?
Shearing forces are unaligned forces pushing one part of a body in one direction, and another part the body in the opposite direction.
What is compression?
What happens when you push down on a spring and collapse it? That's right, you compress it, and by squishing it, you shorten its length. Compressional stress, therefore, is the opposite of tensional stress.
What is technology?
defined as humans using objects to change the natural and human-made environment. Technology is:

human knowledge
uses tools, materials, systems
application results in artifacts or other outputs
developed by people to modify or contro the environment
All technological systems...
arise out of human need
are designed and developed by people
integrate resources to produce outputs
have consequences for people, society, and the environment
evaluated by people
are modified or abandoned in time
Technology Systems include:
Inputs are
the elements that flow into the system and are consumed or processed by the system.
Materials are
all natural matter that is directly or indirectly used by the system.
Tools are the
technological means that must be present before we have technology
Energy is
the ability to do work
Information is
organized data
Finances are the
money and costs necessary for an economic system
all jobs or activities take time.
Technology can be grouped in 4 ways:
Level of developement
Economic structure
Number of people involved
Type of technology developed and used
Level of Developement:
obsolete technology- those technologies that can no longer efficiently meet human needs for products and services
current technology- the range of technogies used to produce most of the products and services today.
emerging technology- the new technologies that are not widely employed today
obsolete technology-
those technologies that can no longer efficiently meet human needs for products and services
current technology-
the range of technogies used to produce most of the products and services today.
emerging technology-
the new technologies that are not widely employed today
Economic Structure:
Research and Developement: Designing, developing, and specifying the characteristics of the product, structure, or service.
Production: Developing and operating systems for producing the product, structure, or service
Marketing: Promoting, selling, and delivering the product, structure, or service
Research and Developement:
Designing, developing, and specifying the characteristics of the product, structure, or service.
Developing and operating systems for producing the product, structure, or service
Promoting, selling, and delivering the product, structure, or service
Inputs to Technological Systems:
Machines and tools
Machines are:
Tool + Mechanism = Machine
People are grouped into 6 categories:
The six basic mechanisms are:
Wheel and Axle
Inclined Plane
The three technological processes are:
Design/Problem Solving- Steps include:
Identifying/Understanding the problem
Developing multiple solutions
Isolating and detailing the best solution
Modeling and evaluating the selected solution
Communicating the final solution

Transformation- Different processes can be used, is also called Production Processes.

Management- Steps:
Design/Problem Solving-
Steps include:
Identifying/Understanding the problem
Developing multiple solutions
Isolating and detailing the best solution
Modeling and evaluating the selected solution
Communicating the final solution
Different processes can be used, is also called Production Processes.
Management- Steps:
The types of Transformation processes include:
Communication Processes- exchanging information or ideas. For telecommunications, the steps are:
Manufacturing Processes- Subcategories
Obtaining Resources
Primary Processing
Secondary Process
Transportation Processes- Transportation modes:
Communication Processes- exchanging information or ideas. For telecommunications, the steps are:
Manufacturing Processes- Subcategories
Obtaining Resources
Primary Processing
Secondary Process
Transportation Processes- Transportation modes:
Types of Control Systems:
Open-loop control- uses no feedback to compare the results with the goal.

Closed-loop control- systems using feedback.
Open-loop control-
uses no feedback to compare the results with the goal.
Closed-loop control
systems using feedback.
Components of Control Systems:
Components of Control Systems:
Monitoring Devices...include: Mechanical Sensors, Thermal Sensors, Optical Sensors, Electrical or electronic sensors
Magnetic sensors,m Data comparing devices, Adjusting Devices....
Mechanical Controllers- using cams, levers, and other types of linkages to adjust machines or other devices.
Electromechanical Conrollers- Using electromagnetic coils and forces to move control linkages and operate switches to adjust machine or other devices.
Electrical and electronic controllers- using electrical and electronic devices to adjust machines or other devices.
Fluidic controllers- Using fluids, including oil (hydroaulic), and air (pneumatic) to adjust machines or other devices.
Monitoring Devices...include:
Mechanical Sensors
Thermal Sensors
Optical Sensors
Electrical or electronic sensors
Magnetic sensors
Data comparing devices
Adjusting Devices...
Mechanical Controllers- using cams, levers, and other types of linkages to adjust machines or other devices.
Electromechanical Conrollers- Using electromagnetic coils and forces to move control linkages and operate switches to adjust machine or other devices.
Electrical and electronic controllers- using electrical and electronic devices to adjust machines or other devices.
Fluidic controllers- Using fluids, including oil (hydroaulic), and air (pneumatic) to adjust machines or other devices.
Manual Control Systems
require humans to adjust the processes
Automatic Control systems are used to
monitor, compare, and adjust the systems without human inference.
Input is
something put into a system or expended in its operation to achieve output or a result.
Output is
the information produced by a system or process from a specific input. Within the context of systems theory, the inputs are what are put into a system and the outputs are the results obtained after running an entire process or just a small part of a process. Because the outputs can be the results of an individual unit of a larger process, outputs of one part of a process can be the inputs to another part of the process.
The spread of a technology through a society or industry. The diffusion of a technology generally follows an S-shaped curve as early versions of technology are rather unsuccessful, followed by a period of successful innovation with high levels of adoption, and finally a dropping off in adoption as a technology reaches its maximum potential in a market. In the case of a personal computer, it has made way beyond homes and into business settings, such as office workstations and server machines to host websites.
technological change as a social process
a general agreement on the importance of social context and communication. According to this model, technological change is seen as a social process involving producers and adopters and others (such as government) who are profoundly affected by cultural setting, political institutions and marketing strategies.
technological change is a
social process strongly biased by the financial interests of capital.
What is a powerful driver of technological change.
the maximization of profits in free market economies
Elements of diffusion
(1) an innovative technology (2) communicated through certain channels (3) to members of a social system (4) who adopt it over a period of time.
The social system provides a medium through which
and boundaries within which, innovation is adopted. The structure of the social system affects technological change in several ways. Social norms, opinion leaders, change agents, government and the consequences of innovations are all involved. Also involved are cultural setting, nature of political institutions, laws, policies and administrative structures.
Emerging technologies include
educational technology, information technology, nanotechnology, biotechnology, cognitive science, robotics, and artificial intelligence.[1]
technological convergence
different systems evolving towards similar goals.
What is an example of convergence?
bringing previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications) and video together so that they share resources and interact with each other, creating new efficiencies.
Example of technological growth
development of the DVD to replace a CD.
What is and give an example of disruptive technologies...
those where a new method replaces the previous technology and make it redundant, for example, the replacement of horse-drawn carriages by automobiles.
Artificial intelligence (AI)
is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software, and the branch of computer science that develops machines and software with human-like intelligence.
A cancer vaccine is a
vaccine that treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer in certain high-risk individuals.
In vitro meat,
also called cultured meat, cruelty-free meat, shmeat, and test-tube meat, is an animal-flesh product that has never been part of a living animal with exception of the fetal calf serum taken from a slaughtered cow.
(sometimes shortened to nanotech) is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.