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IGCSE Topic 28: The endocrine system
Hormones, the menstrual cycle and the control of blood glucose levels.
Terms in this set (58)
Uptake of substances into a cell against a concentration gradient. Requires energy
Glands positioned above the kidneys that secrete adrenaline.
A hormone involved in the fight or flight response. Raises heart and breathing rates and shuts down blood supply to non-vital organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that regulates water reabsorption in the kidney by altering the permeability of the collecting ducts.
Liquid tissue that is the main transport medium in animals.
Cattle growth hormone. Produced by genetically engineered bactria, this hormone can be used to boost milk production in cows and improve meat yields from bulls by boosting muscle development.
The very fine blood vessels that permeate all the tissues in the body to supply oxygen and nutrients as well as remove waste products.
A biological molecule containing carbon hydrogen and oxygen, usually with the formula (CH2O)n
Artery that carries blood to neck and head.
The use of artificial means to control fertility.
A drug used to prevent conception by using hormones to regulate fertility.
Yellow body. The cells that are left from the Graafian follicle after release of the egg. Important for production of progesterone to maintain uterine lining.
A disease where the body's ability to regulate blood glucose concentration is reduced or lost.
The net movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to one of lower concentration.
Tube leading from a land to the outside of the body or into the gut
Describes endocrine glands; without a tube leading to the outside of the body.
The first part of the small intestine where digestive enzymes are added.
Gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood stream. Do not use ducts.
The body's communication system that relies on circulating chemical messengers called hormones.
Gland that secretes substances outside the body through ducts.
The process where two gametes fuse to form a zygote.
To form a diploid zygote by fusion of haploid sperm and egg cells.
The ability of an organism to reproduce by sexual reproduction.
The ball of cells that protects the developing ovum in the ovary.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates ripening of an egg in the ovary
Hormone secreted by the pancreas that increases blood glucose levels.
Monosaccharide. Simple sugar used in respiration for energy by plants and animals. Product of photosynthesis. Can be stored as starch or glycogen.
Polysaccharide that is used to store glucose in animals.
Ball of cells that surrounds ovum and provides nutrients as it develops in the ovary.
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that regulates growth. A lack of this hormone causes hereditary dwarfism.
A chemical messenger that is transported in the blood stream as part of the endocrine system. Similar molecules are found in plants and are known as plant growth substances.
Term that describes stable attachment of the developing embryo to the uterine lining.
Describes any condition affecting males or females that results in difficulty conceiving
The important hormone produced by the pancreas that lowers blood glucose levels.
Islets of Langerhans
Cells in the pancrease that secrete insulin and glucagon.
Very active organ involved in detoxification and production of urea. Also produces bile to aid in the digestion of fats.
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that triggers ovulation
The sequence of events, usually lasting 28 days, that regulates human female fertility
Shedding of the uterus lining through the vagina in the absence of fertilisation.
One of the hormones produced by the ovary that regulates fertility and the menstrual cycle. Stimulates the rebuilding of the uterine lining.
Part of the female reproductive system. Site of gamete (ovum) production and maturation.
The point in the menstrual cycle when the ovum is released from the ovary.
Egg. Female gamete.
Large gland which secretes digestive enzymes as well as the hormone insulin.
A drug that increases sporting ability through effects on the efficiency of the muscles, cardiovascular system or on mental state.
Another term for the release of blood from the vagina during menstruation.
Specialised structure in mammals that allows the exchange of nutrients and waste between the foetus and the mother.
The liquid portion of the blood after all the cells have been removed.
Primary sexual characteristics
Present at birth, these are the sexual organs characteristic of male or female members of a species.
Female sex hormone responsible for maintaining the thickness of the uterine lining ready for implantation of a fertilised ovum. Regulates menstruation.
Characteristic of living organisms. The ability to produce new members of the same species.
Organ system responsible for producing gametes: sperm in men and eggs in women, and supporting development of the embryo in the womb.
Secondary sexual characteristics
The changes that occur in a body at puberty, driven by the male and female sex hormones.
Transfer of a chemical from inside to outside a cell through the cell membrane.
Hormones regulating secondary sexual characteristics that are produced by the ovary or testes.
Mobile sex cell or gamete produced by the male of the species.
Male sex hormone. Responsible for secondary sexual characteristics development.
Hormone produced in the thyroid gland that stimulates metabolism.
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