How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

71 terms

Foot Disorders

STUDY
PLAY
Foot Disorders Foot Disorders
Fore-, Mid-, Hind-Foot Divisions
• Forefoot
- Phalanges
- Metatarsals
• Midfoot
- Cuneiforms
- Cuboid
- Navicular
• Hindfoot
- Talus
- Calcaneus
Foot Disorders Foot Disorders
Fore-, Mid-, Hind-Foot Divisions
• Tibiotalar (ankle) joint Between tibia-talus
• Transverse tarsal joint Between talus-navicular Between calcaneus-cuboid
Remember, the "ankle joint" is comprised of THREE ARTICULATIONS
1. Talocrural (tibiotalar)
2. Subtalar
3.Transverse tarsal
1. Talocrural Ankle Joint
- Dorsiflexion and Plantarflexion
2. Subtalar Ankle Joint
- Inversion and Eversion
3. Transverse Tarsal Ankle Joint
- Alternating foot rigidity and flexibility
- Contributes to forefoot AB/ADduction
Arches of the Foot
1. lateral longitudinal arch
2 transverse arch
3 medial longitudinal arch
Forefoot Disorders Metatarsalgia
Pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot.
Forefoot Disorders Metatarsalgia • Cause
- Excessive forefoot pressure
- High-heeled shoes
- Friction or shear inside shoe
Metataralgia Clinical Picture
- Pain under ball of foot
- "Walking with a pebble in my shoe"
-Callous formation under 2nd &/or 3rd met head
Forefoot Disorders Metatarsalgia Treatment
- Transfer weight to longitudinal & metatarsal arches
- Lower heel of shoe
- Limit friction or sheer inside shoe
Forefoot Disorders Metatarsalgia • Orthotic Device
- Longer or wider shoe
- Total contact
- Shock absorbing material
- Shoe modifications
- Goals:
1. Redistribute pressure across entire plantar surface
2. Relieve direct metatarsal head pressure
Forefoot Disorders Morton's Neuroma
- Pain in the ball of the foot
- Specifically between toes
-Thickening of tissue around nerves
- Neuropathy
- Burning, stinging, numbness
Forefoot Disorders Morton's Neuroma Cause
- Excessive forefoot pressure, irritation, trauma
• Clinical Picture
- Pain between digits
- Female > male
- Metatarsal head compression
Forefoot Disorders Morton's neuroma Causes
- Morton's neuroma is not actually a tumor, but a thickening of the tissue that surrounds the digital nerve leading to the toes. • Nerve becomes sandwiched between the bones in the foot as it passes underneath ligaments
Morton's Neuroma • Treatment
- Reduce M-L compression
- Lower heel heights
- Utilize shock absorbing material
• Orthotic Device
- Morton's extension
- Carbon fiber plate
- Stiffer soles
- Rocker bottom
Forefoot Disorders Hallux Valgus (Bunions)
A deviation of the great toe/hallux toward the
lateral border of the foot
...
Hallux Valgus (Bunions) -Cause
- Osteoarthritis of 1st MTP joint
- Toe box too narrow
- High-heels
Clinical Picture Hallux Valgus
- Bunion or bony prominence on medial aspect of 1st MTH
- Lateral deviation of 1st toe
- Pain
Forefoot Disorders Hallux Valgus (Bunions) Treatment
- Reduce pressure & friction to 1st MTP joint
- Utilize shock absorbing material
Hallux Valgus• Orthotic Device
- Deeper, wider toe box shoe
-Stiff sole
- Carbon plate
- Rocker bottom
- Custom FOs
Hallux Rigidus
- Degenerative, osteoarthritis of the 1st MTP joint
- Damage to articular cartilage
- Raw bone ends rub together
- Bone spur overgrowth
- Stiff big toe
Hallux Rigidus
• Cause
- Osteoarthritis of 1st MTP joint
Hallux Rigidus
• Clinical Picture
- Decreased 1st MTP joint ROM
- Painful 'rollover' from mid-to late stance
-Compensatory gait to prevent 1st toe motion
Hallux Rigidus • Treatment
- Utilize shock absorbing materials
• Orthotic Device - Deeper, wider toe box
- Carbon foot plate
- Stiff soles
- Rocker bottom
Hammer Toes
- Deformity of the second, third, and fourth toes
- Toe is flexed at the PIP joint
Claw Toes
• Claw toes are usually associated with nerve damage
• Claw toe position:
- MTP joint extension (dorsiflexion)
- PIP joint flexion (plantar flexion)
- DIP joint flexion (plantar flexion)
Hammer Toes • Cause
- Poor fitting shoes
- Muscle imbalance
• Clinical Picture
- Dorsal toe (PIP) irritation
- Fixed flexion deformity of IP joint(s)
- Calluses
Hammer Toes • Treatment
- Deeper, wider toe box
- Soft, expandable uppers
- Utilize shock absorbing material
• Orthotic Device
- Shoe modifications
- Custom FOs
- Shields & toe separators
Sesamoiditis
- Free-floating bones, connected only to tendons
- Serve as pulleys, aid sliding of tendons
- Susceptible to fracture and inflammation
Sesamoiditis Cause
- Forefoot valgus
- Excessive 1st MTP joint pressure
• Clinical Picture
- Pain under 1st met head with weight bearing
- Significant localized tenderness
Sesamoiditis • Treatment
- Utilize shock absorbing materials
- Lower heels of shoes
- Reduce direct pressure against 1st MTP joint
• Orthotic Device
- Increase toe lever arm
- Reduce dorsiflexion of 1st MTP joint
- Stiff hallux extension
Midfoot Disorders Foot Strain
- Strain = muscle, tendon injury
- Sprain = ligamentous injury
- Soft-tissue injuries
Ex. contusions, tendinitis, bursitis, stress
Foot Strain • Cause
• Clinical picture
- Incorrect shoe size
- Chronic vs. acute
- Soft tissue weakness
- Pain and tenderness
- Obesity
• In arch and calf
• Often worse later in day
- Overexercise
• Edema
Midfoot Disorders Foot Strain • Treatment
- Local treatment
• Hot soaks, ice
- Exercises
• Orthotic Device
-Correct-fitting shoewear
- Arch supports
Midfoot Disorders Pes Planus
Abnormally flat arch (medial longitudinal) upon weight-bearing
• Rarely a problem in children
• Adults - No treatment if asymptomatic
Pes Planus
Arch develops on toe standing. Characteristic finding in flexible flatfeet.
Pes Cavus
Abnormally high arch (medial longitudinal) upon weight-bearing
Pes Cavus • Cause
- Usually effect of more severe foot pathology
- Bony deformity
- Soft tissue contractures
• Clinical Picture
- High medial longitudinal arch
- Foot is shortened
- Prominent met heads & claw toes
Pes Cavus
• Treatment
- Well-cushioned shoewear
- Low-heeled
• Orthotic Device
- Accommodative FO
- Metatarsal bar, pad
- Intimate fitting, flexible arch
Osteoarthritis • Cause
- Arthritis
- Degenerative changes
• Clinical Picture
- Antalgic gait
- Sensitivity along dorsal aspect of foot
Osteoarthritis Treatment
- Reduce painful joint motion
- Increase M-L stability
- Support medial longitudinal arch
- Absorb plantar surface pressures
• Orthotic Device
- Accommodative FO
- Shoewear
• Blucher opening to ease donning
• Long medial counter
• Pad the tongue
• Skip lacing
Hindfoot Disorders Posterior Tibial Tendonitis (Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction, PTTD)
- Inflammation or rupture of posterior tibialis tendon
Hindfoot Disorders Posterior Tibial Tendonitis Onset
- Develops with excessive, repeated pronation
- Stretches PTT along medial, plantar aspect
Posterior Tibial Tendonitis • Cause
-Hindfoot valgus position
- Induces foot pronation
• Clinical Picture
- Irritation/pain along medial ankle & arch
- Lateral malleolus/ankle impingement pain
Posterior Tibial Tendonitis • Treatment
- Correct/accommodate pronation and hindfoot valgus
- Reduce excessive midfoot motion
- Relieve medial aspect pain
Posterior Tibial Tendonitis • Orthotic Device
- Shoes
• Long medial counter
• Blucher opening
• Medial heel wedge
• Medial heel flare Orthotic Device
- Custom FO with medial & hindfoot posting
- Ankle Foot Orthosis for complete rupture
Plantar Fasciitis
- Inflammation of the thick, fibrous tissue underneath the foot
- the plantar fascia
- Plantar fascia connects metatarsal heads to the calcaneus
- Forms the longitudinal arches
Plantar Fasciitis • Cause
- Inflammation of plantar fascia at insertion
- Excessive direct heel pressure
- Chronic pronation
- Acquired foot:
•Occupations that require excessive standing or walking
• Pregnancy
• Improper footwear
• Recent unacclimatized activity
Plantar Fasciitis • Clinical Picture
- Heel pain first thing in the a.m.
- Cramping, spasm of plantar fascia
- Painful/tender palpation of anteriormedial area of calcaneus - Possible osteophyte (heel spur)
Plantar Fasciitis • Treatment
- Support entire plantar fascia
- Provide shock absorption
- Proper footwear
- Stretching exercises
- Reduce inflammation
- Accommodate bone spurs
- Control inducing motions
...
Plantar Fasciitis • Orthotic Device
- Heel cups
- Longitudinal support
- Hindfoot control
- UCBL
- Night-time splint
- Taping
...
Tarsal Coalition
- Anomalous fusion of two or more tarsal bones
- Leads to rigid pes planus deformity Talocalcaneal and calcaneonavicular coalition
Tarsal Coalition
Normal standing
• Fixed flat foot deformity
-Standing on toes
• Arches remain flat
• Implies rigid deformity
Tarsal Coalition • Cause
- Fusion can be osseous,cartilaginous or fibrous
- Most commonly betweentalus-calcaneus and calcaneus-navicular
Tarsal Coalition Clinical Picture
- May be asymptomatic
- Likely congenital, but not symptomatic until late adolescence to adulthood
- Pain due to over use of remaining joints
- Rigid flatfoot
Tarsal Coalition • Treatment
- Severity of pain/discomfort
- Type of coalition
- Surgical resection
• Orthotic Device
- Articulated AFO
- UCBL
- Custom FO
Retrocalcaneal Bursitis
Swelling, inflammation of the fluid-filled sac at the back of the heel bone under the Achilles tendon
Retrocalcaneal Bursitis
- Bursae act as cushions and lubricants between tendons and muscle sliding over bone
Retrocalcaneal Bursitis • Cause
- Friction from ill-fitting shoes
• Shoes too tight
• Shoes too loose - High heel shoes
Retrocalcaneal Bursitis • Clinical Picture
- 'Pump Bumps' - Inflamed & thickened area at back of heel
- Tenderness & swelling in area
Retrocalcaneal Bursitis • Treatment
- Reduce friction & sheer in area
- Improve shoe fit
- Cushioning
• Orthotic Device
- Appropriate fitting shoes
• Remove posterior counter
• Donut pad in posterior counter
Calcaneal Fractures
- Any fracture of the heel bone
- Significantly disabling
Calcaneal Fractures • Cause
- High-impact
- Trauma
- Over-use
• Clinical Picture
- Broadened heel
- Painful calcaneal movements
Calcaneal Fractures • Treatment
- Absorb impact
- Control inversion/eversion motions
• Orthotic Device
-Immobilization cast
- AFO
- High-top shoe
Osteoarthritis • Cause
- Degenerative changes
• Clinical Picture
Osteoarthritis • Treatment
- Assess severity
- Reduce ankle motion (DF, PF, and ML)
- Provide M-L support
Summary
• The foot and ankle complex contains multiple bones and joint articulations
• The summation of motion about all these articulations confers biomechanical stability and flexibility of the anatomical foot
• Pathological conditions of the foot involve anomalies and dysfunction of these anatomical structures and joints
• Each pathology is categorized according to its location - fore-, mid-, hind-foot