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Hazardous Materials Awareness

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Hazmat
a substance or material capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health , safety, or property when transported in commerce.
Hazard class
is a group of hazardous materials that share dangerous characteristics. Their are 9 hazard classes
Hazardous Substance
any substance designated under the clean water act and comprehensive environmental response compensation and Liability act.CERCLA
Extremely Hazardous Substnances (EHS)
chemicals determined by the EPA to be extremely hazardous to a community during an emergency spill or release as a result of their toxicities and physical chemical properties.
Hazardous Chemicals
any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the workplace.
First Responder
individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance release and who have been trained to initiate an emergency response notification.
Hazardous Materials Technician
individuals who respond to releases or potential releases for the purposes of stopping the release.
Hazard Communication Regulation
(HAZCOM)
requires hazardous materials manufactures and handlers to develop written MSDS.
TIC's & TIMs
toxic industrial chemicals and materials
Agricultural Chemicals
organophosphates, ammonia
Chemical Warfare Agents
nerve agents, vesicants, blister agents, blood agents
Riot Control & Irritants
pepper spray, oleoresin capsicum OC spray.
Biological toxins
ricin, botulinium
Pathogens
disease causin organism
anthrax, plaque, smallpox, bird flu , h1n1
Asphyxiation(Suffocation)
simple, chemical
Container Failure
punctures, abrasions, lacerations
Mechanical Effect
physical trauma from moving material or wave pressure
Radiological Effects
alpha
beta
gamma
neutron
x-ray
Radiation
ionizing energy spontaneously emitted by material or combination of materials.
Radioactive Material
one that spontaneously emits ionizing radiation.
Roentgen
(R)
RAD
radiation absorbed dose
REM
radiation equivalent to man.
applies to all types of radiation
takes into account the energy absorbed(dose) and the biological effect on the body due to the different types of radiation.
Half-Life
the measure of the rate of decay of a radioactive material.
Types of Radiation
ionizing radiation
non-ionizing radiation
Ionizing Radiation
involves particles travailing in a wave like motion.
produced from: ALPHA BETA GAMMA
Non-Ionizing Radiation
made up of waves of energy. non ionizing radiation comes from ultraviolet and infrared energy waves.
Alpha radiation
partials that will travel 3 to 4 inches and will not penetrate the skin.
can be contaminated by
Injection
inhalation
ingestion
Beta Radiation
particles will penetrate the skin and may travel from 3 to 100 feet.
can by contaminated by
inhalation
ingestion
injection
absorption
penetration
Gamma Radiation
gamma radiation is a naturally occurring high energy electromagnetic wave.
high penetrating power and travels at the speed of light.
will penetrate the skin and will cause injure to the internal organs if not shielded.
3 characteristics of an EMERGENCY RESPONSE
We Cannot Smell it
We Cannot Taste it
We Cannot See it
Nerve Agents
SARIN (GB)
SOMAN (GD)
TABUN (GA)
V AGENT (VX)
Blister Agents (VESICANTS)
Mustard
Lewisite
Blood Agents
Hydrogen cyanide
Cyanogen Chloride
Arsine
Choking Agents
Chlorine
Phosgene
Irritants
Chloropicrin
Mace
Tear Gas
Pepper Spray
Viral Agents
smaller than bacteria ... Lives inside individual cells
Bacterial Agents
single celled organisms capable of causing disease in plants, animals , and humans.
Biological Agents
toxic substance of natural origin produced by an animal, plant or microbe.
Routes of Entry or Biological Agents
inhalation
absorption
ingestion
injection
Toxicology
the study of chemical or physical agents which interact with biologic systems to produce a response in organisms.
Toxicity
the relative ability of a substance to cause injury to biologic tissue
Acute Toxicity
ability of a chemical to produce adverse health effects as a result of a short exposure.
Chronic Toxicity
when a chemical produces damage after repeated exposures.. May have long latency intervals, develop slowly or require years of repeated exposure before they are manifested.
Lethal Dose (LD-50)
a calculated dose of a substance which is expected to cause the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental animal population.
Lethal concentration Low (LClo)
Lethal Concentration Fifty (LC50)
a calculated concentration of ta substance in air, exposure to which for a specified length of time is expected to cause the death the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental animal population.
Factors Influencing Toxicity
Route of Exposure
Sex
Age
Synergism, Antagonism, Potentiation
Genetics
Species Variation
Identification Clues
container shapes
markings and colors
placards and labels
shipping papers
Information Provided by Manifest
proper shipping name
hazard class and division
DOT or UN identification number
total quantity
any special hazards
first aid requirements
emergency contact number manufacturer
CHEMTREC or CANUTEC
CHEMTREC or CANUTEC
Number for the hazard info that is being shipped
TLV
Threshold Limit Valve
IDLH
Immediate Dangerous to Life and Health
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheets
Warnings and Indicators
Shipping manifest
Placards
labels
Interviews
driver, others involved in transportation of materials
witnesses
victims
Communications
Texas Law enforcement telecommunication System (TLETS)
Shipper at point of origin
NIMS
National Incident Management Systems
ICS
Incident Command System
Basic Procedures of safequarding lives at a Hazmat Event.
Initial assessment and response at an incident
Removing citizens from the affected area
Minimizing health hazards for responders
Decontamination concepts
End the exposure
neutralize
Isolate
Hazardous Materials Event
situation in which HAZMAT is or may be released into the environment.
Dose-Response Concept
all substances in the right amount become toxic.
Exposure
the process by with people, animals, and equipment are subjected to or come in contact with a HAZMAT.. the magnitude of exposure depends on the duration and the concentration of the material.
Pipelines
must contain:
operator name
emergency phone #
name of material
SIN
Safety
Isolation
Notification
ERG ( Emergency Response Guide)
basic safety tool for 1st responders to ID HazMat
Objectives of Hazmat
recognize the need for additional resources
gather information regarding the release
identify the HazMat if possible
take appropriate actions to isolate the hazard and deny entry
Modular Design
the incident command system is based on modular design, it allows transition from small to large scale incidents.
Safequarding Lives at ta HazMat incident
Removing citizens from the affected area
limit spread of contamination
establish safe travel routes for public enforce perimeter security.
remain up-hill and up-wind
wait for qualified assistance
remain outside the designated perimeter.
Safequarding Lives at ta HazMat incident
observations
assessment
plan
communicate
respond
Protection level A
selected when the greatest level of skin, respiratory and eye protection is required.
Protection level B
used in situations when the highest level of respiratory protection is require, for example, using SCBA.
Protection level C
used when the type of airborne contaminant and its concentration level are known.
Protection level D
used to afford minimal protection against nuisance contaminants only.
used in atmosphere contains no known hazards.
Overcoat flash suit
may or may not give chemical protection depending on application.
Sources to obtain On-site information
highway-bill of lading
rail-waybill
water- located in the wheelhouse or with the Captain
air-air bill
CERCLA 1980
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act.
RCRA 1976
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
Working in a Hazmat Incident
use a safe a cautious approach
identify the hazardous material
EPA
substance which due to its concentration, quantity or chemical/physical properties may cause or contribute to an increase mortality & illness
DOT
any substance or material in any form or quantity which poses an unreasonable risk to safety, health and property when transported in commerce.
OSHA
any substance to which exposure results or may result in adverse effects on health or safety of employees or any chemical which is a physical hazard or a health hazard.
Technician
responds and assumes a more aggressive role than the 1st responder.
Specialist
respond w and provide support to hazmat techs
Incident Commander
assumes control over incident scene: has overall management of the incident
white pages
placard table, hazard class system, rail and road trailer id chart, criminal or terrorist use of chemical biological agents
yellow pages
indexed 4 digit id number- refer to to the appropriate guide page
blue pages
indexed by name --refer responder to the appropriate guide page.
orange pages
info on potential hazards and appropriate emergency actions.
green pages
table of initial isolation and protective action distances, dangerous when wet materials and poison inhalation hazards.