physical trauma from moving material or wave pressure
alpha beta gamma neutron x-ray
ionizing energy spontaneously emitted by material or combination of materials.
one that spontaneously emits ionizing radiation.
radiation absorbed dose
radiation equivalent to man. applies to all types of radiation takes into account the energy absorbed(dose) and the biological effect on the body due to the different types of radiation.
the measure of the rate of decay of a radioactive material.
Types of Radiation
ionizing radiation non-ionizing radiation
involves particles travailing in a wave like motion. produced from: ALPHA BETA GAMMA
made up of waves of energy. non ionizing radiation comes from ultraviolet and infrared energy waves.
partials that will travel 3 to 4 inches and will not penetrate the skin. can be contaminated by Injection inhalation ingestion
particles will penetrate the skin and may travel from 3 to 100 feet. can by contaminated by inhalation ingestion injection absorption penetration
gamma radiation is a naturally occurring high energy electromagnetic wave. high penetrating power and travels at the speed of light. will penetrate the skin and will cause injure to the internal organs if not shielded.
3 characteristics of an EMERGENCY RESPONSE
We Cannot Smell it We Cannot Taste it We Cannot See it
SARIN (GB) SOMAN (GD) TABUN (GA) V AGENT (VX)
Blister Agents (VESICANTS)
Hydrogen cyanide Cyanogen Chloride Arsine
Chloropicrin Mace Tear Gas Pepper Spray
smaller than bacteria ... Lives inside individual cells
single celled organisms capable of causing disease in plants, animals , and humans.
toxic substance of natural origin produced by an animal, plant or microbe.
Routes of Entry or Biological Agents
inhalation absorption ingestion injection
the study of chemical or physical agents which interact with biologic systems to produce a response in organisms.
the relative ability of a substance to cause injury to biologic tissue
ability of a chemical to produce adverse health effects as a result of a short exposure.
when a chemical produces damage after repeated exposures.. May have long latency intervals, develop slowly or require years of repeated exposure before they are manifested.
Lethal Dose (LD-50)
a calculated dose of a substance which is expected to cause the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental animal population. Lethal concentration Low (LClo)
Lethal Concentration Fifty (LC50)
a calculated concentration of ta substance in air, exposure to which for a specified length of time is expected to cause the death the death of 50% of an entire defined experimental animal population.
Factors Influencing Toxicity
Route of Exposure Sex Age Synergism, Antagonism, Potentiation Genetics Species Variation
container shapes markings and colors placards and labels shipping papers
Information Provided by Manifest
proper shipping name hazard class and division DOT or UN identification number total quantity any special hazards first aid requirements emergency contact number manufacturer CHEMTREC or CANUTEC
CHEMTREC or CANUTEC
Number for the hazard info that is being shipped
Threshold Limit Valve
Immediate Dangerous to Life and Health
Material Safety Data Sheets
Warnings and Indicators
Shipping manifest Placards labels
driver, others involved in transportation of materials witnesses victims
Texas Law enforcement telecommunication System (TLETS) Shipper at point of origin
National Incident Management Systems
Incident Command System
Basic Procedures of safequarding lives at a Hazmat Event.
Initial assessment and response at an incident Removing citizens from the affected area Minimizing health hazards for responders
End the exposure neutralize Isolate
Hazardous Materials Event
situation in which HAZMAT is or may be released into the environment.
all substances in the right amount become toxic.
the process by with people, animals, and equipment are subjected to or come in contact with a HAZMAT.. the magnitude of exposure depends on the duration and the concentration of the material.
must contain: operator name emergency phone # name of material
Safety Isolation Notification
ERG ( Emergency Response Guide)
basic safety tool for 1st responders to ID HazMat
Objectives of Hazmat
recognize the need for additional resources gather information regarding the release identify the HazMat if possible take appropriate actions to isolate the hazard and deny entry
the incident command system is based on modular design, it allows transition from small to large scale incidents.
Safequarding Lives at ta HazMat incident
Removing citizens from the affected area limit spread of contamination establish safe travel routes for public enforce perimeter security. remain up-hill and up-wind wait for qualified assistance remain outside the designated perimeter.
Safequarding Lives at ta HazMat incident
observations assessment plan communicate respond
Protection level A
selected when the greatest level of skin, respiratory and eye protection is required.
Protection level B
used in situations when the highest level of respiratory protection is require, for example, using SCBA.
Protection level C
used when the type of airborne contaminant and its concentration level are known.
Protection level D
used to afford minimal protection against nuisance contaminants only. used in atmosphere contains no known hazards.
Overcoat flash suit
may or may not give chemical protection depending on application.
Sources to obtain On-site information
highway-bill of lading rail-waybill water- located in the wheelhouse or with the Captain air-air bill
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
Working in a Hazmat Incident
use a safe a cautious approach identify the hazardous material
substance which due to its concentration, quantity or chemical/physical properties may cause or contribute to an increase mortality & illness
any substance or material in any form or quantity which poses an unreasonable risk to safety, health and property when transported in commerce.
any substance to which exposure results or may result in adverse effects on health or safety of employees or any chemical which is a physical hazard or a health hazard.
responds and assumes a more aggressive role than the 1st responder.
respond w and provide support to hazmat techs
assumes control over incident scene: has overall management of the incident
placard table, hazard class system, rail and road trailer id chart, criminal or terrorist use of chemical biological agents
indexed 4 digit id number- refer to to the appropriate guide page
indexed by name --refer responder to the appropriate guide page.
info on potential hazards and appropriate emergency actions.
table of initial isolation and protective action distances, dangerous when wet materials and poison inhalation hazards.