Philosophy Chapter 8
Terms in this set (25)
1. Which statement(s) summarize classical utilitarianism?
a. actions are judged to be right or wrong solely by virtue of their consequences.
b. in assessing consequences the only thing that matters is the amount of happiness or unhappiness that is created.
c. Each person's happiness counts the same.
d. all of the above.
2. According to classical utilitarianism
c. right actions are those that create the greatest balance of happiness over unhappiness.
According to Mill the utilitarian doctrine is that
b. happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable as an end
4. According to classical Utilitarians
a. happiness is pleasure.
5. According to classical Utilitarians
a. pleasure includes all mental states that feel good
6. The idea that pleasure is the one ultimate good and pain the ultimate evil is known as
7. . Hedonism has always been an attractive theory of ethics
c. because of its simplicity
8. Hedonism expresses the plausible notion that things are good or bad
a. because of how they make us feel.
9. To determine whether an action is right Utilitarians believe that
d. we should look at what happens as a result of doing it.
10. If things other than consequences are important in determining what is right
b. utilitarianism is wrong.
11. One of utilitarianisms most serious shortcomings is that
d. it is incompatible with the ideal of justice
12. Utilitarianism is at odds with the idea that
c. people have rights that should not be trampled on.
13. If consequences are all that matter utilitarianism has problems recognizing that
a. there are facts about the past that relevant to determining our obligations
14. One problem with the idea that there must be an equal concern for all people is that
b. this places too high a demand on us.
15. Faithful adherence to the utilitarian standard would require us
a. to give away our resources until we've lowered our standard of living to the level of the neediest of people.
16. Philosophers call supererogatory acts
c. generosity that goes beyond the call of duty.
17. Philosophers call supererogatory acts
a. attaching sanctions to rules is the only way to enforce them.
18. An ethic such as utilitarianism that promotes the general welfare
b. would force us to abandon most of our endeavors.
19. According to Rachels none of us is willing to treat everyone equally
c. since it would require us to abandon our special relationships with friends and family.
20. According to Rachels when we are impartial
d. we miss out on intimacy, love, affection and friendship.
21. According to Rachels anti-utilitarian arguments make unreasonable assumptions
c. when they claim certain actions are required that are obviously immoral.
22. According to Rachel's one difficulty with Utilitarian is that
b. individual actions should be referenced to the principle of utility.
23. A revised version of utilitarianism
b. individual actions would no longer be judged by the principle of utility.
d. would ask what set of rules is optimal from a utilitarian standpoint.
f. two of the above
24. According to Rachels the claim that utilitarianism is wrong because it conflicts with common moral consciousness can be answered by claiming that
c. common moral consciousness is wrong.
25. According to Rachels the claim that common sense morality cannot be trusted
c. may turn out to be utilitarianisms greatest contribution.