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In pleural effusion what causes the fluid accumulation?
Imbalance between fluid formation and absorption
What are the five characteristics of transudative pleural effusion?
Increased hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic pressure, low-protein, the specific gravity, low cell count
What are the six characteristics of exudative pleural effusion?
Increased permeability, high-protein, high specific gravity, high cell count, increased WBCs and purulent
What is the fluid that passes through the pores of the membrane, especially those which pass through capillary walls?
What is an accumulation of fluid in the cavity, or matter that penetrates through vessel walls into adjoining tissue, or the passing out of pus or serum, or the matter so passed?
What are the clinical features of pleural effusion?
Symptoms may be absent
pleuritic chest pain which disappears after the fluid forms and separates the pleural surfaces, and dyspnea which may be severe to massive
What are two key points to diagnose on the chest x-ray?
Blunting of the costophrenic angle and the meniscus around the upper margin
What are some causes of exudate PE?
Infection, neoplasms, pulmonary emboli,/surgery, systemic disease, intra-abdominal disease, idiopathic
What is the management of pleural effusion?
ID and treat the caus, removal of fluid if causing problems, tap a tension hydrothorax, pleurodesis
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