SAS II Test 1 Medications

What classes are Tranquilizers/anxiolytics?
What do they do? Don't do?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 41
Terms in this set (41)
Class: Phenothiazines
Side Effect: Hypotension
- possible flaccid paralysis/paraphimosis of penis & priapism in stallions/bulls

Epinephrine Reversal (a1 & b2)
- Ace is a alpha-antagonist (a1 is vasoconstriction)
- b2 is vasodiliation - triggered by epi
- Epinephrine released in highly stressed animals; animals can 'fall off the needle'

Higher Doses:
- prolong duration of action, not necessarily degree of tranquilizer
- can cause extrapyramidal effects (restless, muscle tremor, muscle spasms)

Onset: Slow (~15min); Peak 30-45 min to full effect
Duration: 3-8 hours

Distribution: Protein Bound (>90%)
Metabolism: Hepatic
Excretion: Renal

Drugs: Midazolam, Diazepam
Use: Anxiolytics & muscle relaxants
- Minimal CV effects
- Wide margin of Safety
- used in combo w/ other drugs

Disad: Controlled substance, low risk abuse
- may cause CNS excitement & altered temperment in young healthy animals

MoA: Enhances Inhibitory Neurotransmission
- pos modulation of GABA
- Does nothing by itself

Side Effects:
- mild resp depression (esp w/ other depressant drugs - eg. opioids)

ANTAGONIST: Flumazenil
Class: Benzodiazepines
- most common in vet med
- insoluble water
- not be mixed with diluents
- NOT IM (poor, unpredictable uptake & painful)

Side Effects:
- hypotension possible if rapid IV
- pain on injection
- renal injury potential
- poss prolonged effects w/ liver disease/hypoproteinemia or renal disease

Antagonist: Flumazenil
Drugs: Xylazine, Detomidine, Romifidine, Medetomidine, Dexmedetomidine
- reliable dose-dependent sedation, analgesia, muscle relaxation
- good analgesia & synergistic w/ opioids
- animals may transiently arouse (bite/kick)
- goats most sensitive > ruminants > camelids > horses > dogs > cats > pigs least
- highly stressed animals may notsedate well

Central: Norepi release inhibited (a2-R agonists)

Side Effects: Vasoconstriction & reflex bradycardia
- HYPERtension 1st, then longer HYPOtension
- bradycardia, hypothermia, emesis, ↓ GI moility, diuresis
- ↓ Cardiac Output, peripheral vasoconstriction
- DON'T use atropine if afterload still high
- resp depression
- abortion poss in cattle

ANTAGONIST: atipamezole (alpha2-antagonists)