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what happens in a story; sequence of events


time and place of a story


author's message about life in a story; the lesson or moral


struggle or problem between opposing forces

internal conflict

inside a character's mind person vs. self - internal conflict

external conflict

problem between character and outside force

character vs. character

problem between two characters

character vs. nature

problem between a character and a force of nature

character vs. society

problem between character and a group of people

character vs. fate/ destiny

problem between character and a force beyond his control

Point of view

the vantage point from which a story is told

1st person

when someone in the story tells the story (I, me, we)

3rd person limited

someone outside the story tells what happens

3rd person omniscient

tells thoughts and feelings of characters


people (animals) in a story


main character


character who causes the problem


attitude of narrator or author, how the author delivers the message (sarcastic, solemn, funny, serious, angry, etc)


contrast between expectation and reality (you expect one thing, yet another thing happens)


a guess based on clues in story and/or the readers' experience; combining what you see with what you already know to "figure it out"


use of hints or clues to predict things to come

figurative language

imaginative use of words


something that stands for something else


direct comparison of two unlike things


comparison of two unlike things using like or as


nonhuman things have human qualities


an exaggeration


type of literature; classification such as realistic fiction, historical fiction, fantasy, nonfiction, romance, etc.


a person, place, thing, or idea that stands for or represents something else


atmosphere or overall feeling in a story

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