24 terms

7th Grade Science: Genetics - mendelian - basic

Sci7 - Chapter 3.1 and 3.2
STUDY
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Heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetics
The scientific study of heredity
gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
allele
the different forms of a gene
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
purebred
an organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
hybrid
an organism that has more than one type of allele for a trait
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
dominant
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
(CAPITALS - A, B, C, Y, R, etc.)
recessive
trait that can be masked by the dominant allele
(lowercase - a, b, c, y, r, etc.)
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
incomplete dominance
the phenotype results in a blend of two different alleles: ex, red flowers x white flowers result in pink flower offspring
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
codominant
traits that are both seen when they are present.
probability
the chances that a particular event will occur
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Acquired trait
a trait that IS NOT passed down from parents to their offspring. examples include dyed hair, pierced ears, broken bones, and scars
Asexual reproduction
reproduction in which one parent produces offspring without fertilization of an egg cell. the offspring, called clones, are identical
Offspring
a new living thing produced by one or two parents
Sexual reproduction
reproduction caused by the fertilization of an egg cell.
Inherited trait
a trait that IS passed down from parents to their offspring. examples include skin color, eye color, extra digits and many others.
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