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AnS 214L Practical 2
Terms in this set (67)
What are four accessory organs for the digestive tract?
Salivary glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas
What is the function of the esophageal sphincter?
Allows entry of food into stomach and prevents regurgitation
What are the longitudinal wrinkles inside the stomach that allow the stomach to expand as needed?
What do the chief cells secrete?
What do the G-cells secrete?
What do the goblet cells secrete?
What do the parietal cells secrete?
HCl and intrinsic factor
What are the four cells located in the gastric glands?
Chief cells, G-cells, Goblet cells, Parietal cells
What are four enzymes produced by the small intestine?
Enterokinase, Maltase, Lactase, Aminopeptidase
What is the structure responsible for regulating flow of material from the ileum to the large intestine?
What are three functions of the liver?
Processes nutrients and regulates nutrient levels in blood, Makes plasma proteins, Degrades/neutralizes hormones (drugs and toxins)
What are four of the six functions of the urinary system?
Filters blood, Maintains electrolyte balance, Collects and stores urine, Resorbs water and useful constituents
Where is urine stored in avians?
Where is urine stored in mammals?
What is the primary urinary end product of nitrogen in avians?
What is the primary urinary end product of nitrogen in mammals?
What is the function of the renal pyramids?
To convert the filtrate from the glomerular capsule into urine
What is the function of the renal columns?
Support the cortex of the kidney
___________ is the functional unit of the kidney
What are two hormones excreted by the adrenal CORtex?
Aldosterone and CORtisone
What are two hormones excreted by the adrenal medulla?
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
What is GFR?
Glomerular Filtration Rate- filtrate produced per minute by both kidneys
Shell, outside layer
Marrow, middle layer
The _____________ ____________ removes waste products and helps regulate blood volume and body pH.
What is the junction of the ureters, colon and reproductive tract in birds.
What species have lobulated kidneys?
Avians and Bovine
Where are the kidneys located?
Just below the last rib and outside of the abdominal peritoneum that encloses the other abdominal organs
What are the four internal structures of the kidney and what are their functions?
Renal Cortex- produces glomerular filtrate
Renal Medula- renal pyramids and renal columns
Renal Pelvis- initially receives urine from the collecting ducts
Nephron- renal corpuscle and renal tubule
What is the function of the renal corpuscle?
Filters the blood
What is the function of the renal tubule?
Converts filtrate into urine via reabsorption and secretion
What does ADH stand for and what is its function?
Antidiuretic Hormone- excreted by the posterior pituitary in the brain and increases H2O resorption by the kidney
What is aldosterone and what is its function?
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases Na+ retention by the kidney
What is renin and what is its function?
Enzyme secreted by the kidney that converts angiotensinogen into the hormone angiotensin 1. (increases the release of aldosterone)
What is nATRIuretic hormone and what is its function?
Secreted by heart ATRIa and decreases Na+ retention by the kidney
What is erythropoietin and what is its function?
Protein hormone secreted by the kidney that acts to stimulate red blood cell production in the bone marrow
What four things are in saliva? (BMW'S)
Water, Mucin, Bicarbonate, Salivary Amylase
What is the function of the esophagus?
Transport food and drink from the pharynx to the stomach by peristalsis
What are functions of the stomach?
Storage, mixing, physical breakdown of food; initiates digestion of proteins; produces mucous, HCl, pepsinogen and intrinsic factor
What is the function of rennin?
Curdles milk, allows for longer residence in the intestine and better digestion/absorption
What are four structures of the stomach and what are their functions?
Esophageal sphincter- valve that allows entry of food into stomach and prevents regurgitation
Pyloric sphincter- valve that controls stomach emptying
Rugae- longitudinal wrinkles, allow stomach to expand
Gastric glands- in stomach lining, contain secretory cells (goblet, g-cells, parietal, chief)
What is the greater omentum and its function?
Part of the mesentary, produces leukocytes
What are two enzymes produced by the pancreas?
Trypsinogen and bicarbinate
What are two hormones produced by the pancreas?
Insulin and glucagon
What are the three sections of the small intestine?
Jejunum (FAT MACI)
What are the three sections of the large intestine?
Cecum- microbial fermentation of residual starch and some cellulose
Colon- (cinnimon roll) microbial fermentation of residual starch and some cellulose and absorption
Rectum- formation of droppings
Condition of, state caused by
What are the four parts of the rumination cycle?
What are the four compartments of the ruminant stomach and their functions?
Reticulum- initiates regurgitation
Rumen- microbial fermentation of feed and absorption of volatile fatty acids
Omasum- water absorption
Abomasum- "true stomach", produces HCl, pepsinogen and intrinsic factor
What is the esophageal groove and what is its function?
Two folds that close when young suckles to cause the milk to bypass the reticulum and rumen, so that it is not fermented. The esophageal groove connects the esophagus to the omasum
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