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After the ___dynasty collapsed in 220, China broke apart and remained divided for nearly 400 years.
*Chinese dynasty from 618-907
*helped restore Han's system of uniform government
*perfected civil service exams to recruit Confucian scholars
*instituted a system of land reform
*built system of canals that encouraged internal trade and transportation
*excouraged foreign trade
Li Yuan's son; a brilliant general, government reformer, historian, and master of the calligraphy brush; became China's most admired emperor
independent state that has to acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler
How did the system of land reform strengthen the central government of China?
It weakened the power of large landowners by redistributing the land to peasants. It increased government revenues, since the peasants who farmed their own land would be able to pay taxes.
What things contributed to the decline of the Tang dynasty?
corruption, high taxes, drought, famine, rebellions
*Chinese dynasty from 960 to 1279
*known for its artistic achievements
*Chinese economy expanded because of improved farming methods and open border policy
*developed new strains of rice and improved irrigation
*encouraged foreign trade
transformed cities into centers of trade
*trade flourished with the issuance of paper money
Grand Canal was completed during the Sui dynasty, linking the ____to the ____.
Huang River and Chang River
What was the order of the well-ordered society under the Tang and Song?
Emperor; Gentry; Peasantry; Merchants
Consisted of most scholar oficials from the wealthy landowning class; studied Confucian classics for civil service exams; the ideal Confucian official was wise, virtuous scholar?
How could peasants move up in society?
through education and government service and by passing the civil service exam
Consisted of most Chinese who worked the land; could move up in society through education and government service; relied on each other instead of government?
in some societies, payment a bride's family makes to the bridegroom and his family; payment a woman brings to a marriage
*custom of binding long strips of cloth to make a "lily-shaped" foot on a woman
*became a symbol of nobility and beauty
*parents feared that they may not be able to marry off their daughter if her feet were big
Short stories that often blended ____,____,and ____, made their first appearance in Chinese literature.
fantasy, romance, adventure
Tang poet who wrote 2,000 poems celebrating harmony with nature or lamenting the passage of time
Which of the following was an accomplishment under the Tang?
A. the development of new strains of rice
B. land reform
C. the invention of new methods of irrigation
D. food surpluses
States that were self governing, but sent tributes to the Tang emperor were known as?
B. tributary states
The break-up and redistribution of large land holdings is a system of?
B. tributary states
C. land reform
China's only female ruler who ruled in her own name?
A. Wu Zhao
B. Li Yuan
C. Tang Taizong
D. Zhao Kuangyun
Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of the Tang rulers?
A. they built a beauracracy
B. they set up schools
C. they developed a flexible law code
D. they gave more power to landowners
Which is the correct order of Chinese rulers from 618 to the late 1200s?
A. Mongols, Han, Tang
B. Han, Mongols, Tang
C. Tang, Han, Song
D. Tang, Song, Mongols
What allowed the Chinese to pursue the arts under the Song?
A. money grants from the emperors
B. a fast growing type of rice imported from Southeast Asia
C. an influx of scholarly Muslims from Baghdad
D. two new universities in Hangzhou
*only foreign dynasty to rule China
*nomadic people who grazed their horses and sheep on the steppes
*conquered the Song dynasty
*Mongol chieftain who conquered a vast empire that stretched from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe
*had a reputation for fierceness and demanded absolute loyalty
*imposed strict military discipline
*set an example for successors by ruling conquered lands with toleration and justice
How did the Mongols treat their conquests?
they allowed the conquered people to live as they had before, as long as they regularly paid tribute to the Mongols
*Genghis Khan's grandson
*emperor of China in 1279
*Ruled all of China, Korea, and Tibet
*adopted Chinese civilization
*welcomed foreigners to visit court
*adopted the Chinese name "Yuan" for his dynasty
Hired Marco Polo for 17 years
Chinese dynasty ruled by the Mongols from 1279 to 1368; best known ruler was Kublai Khan
Italian merchant who visited China during the Yuan dynasty; wrote "Divisament dou Monde" about the wonders of China
Mongol Peace established by the heirs of Ghengis Khan; Mongols controlled the great Silk Road and protected it; trade flourished across Eurasia
How did Kublai Khan organize Mongol rule in China?
*only Mongols could serve in the military and hold the highest government jobs
*Chinese officials were allowed to rule in the provinces
a Chinese peasant leader who forged a rebel army that toppled the Mongols and pushed them back beyond the Great Wall; founded the Ming dynasty
*Chinese dynasty in which Chinese rule was restored
*held power from 1368 to 1644
*restored the civil service system and made the exams more rigorous
*revived Confucian learning
*repaired canal system and made trade easier
*made Chinese cities home to many industries including porcelain, paper, and tools
*improves printing to lead to production of books
*produced the world's first detective stories
*began explorations at sea
*Chinese admiral and diplomat
*commanded the first of seven expeditions at sea, whose goal was to promote trade and collect tribute from lesser powers
In China, under Mongol rule?
A. foreigners were prohibited from landing on Chinese shores
B. only Chinese were allowed to hold the highest government jobs
C. only Mongols were allowed to serve in the military
D. Chinese were prohibited from ruling the provinces
In regard to overseas exploration, Ming emperors?
A. prohibited it because they saw Chinese civilization as superior to all others
B. encouraged it because they believed Chinese civilizations benefited from outside influences
C. were indifferent
D. produced many fleets of seagoing vessels
*Korean dynasty that ruled from 668-935
*among the most advanced in the world
*Korea prospered and the arts flourished
*capital was Kyongju was renowned as "city of gold"
*medicine, astronomy, metal casting, sculpture, and textile manufacturing reached high levels
*set up a national Confucian academy to train high officials
*only aristocrats were allowed to take the civil service exam; this led to conflicts between the peasants and the aristocrats; lead to the Silla's overthrow
*Korean dynasty that ruled from 935-1392
*new capital is Songak
*Confucism and Buddhism were both influential
*used woodblock printing to produce Buddhist texts
*created movable metal type to print large numbers of books
*learned to make porcelain from China
*perfected the technique for making celadon
*Korean dynasty that ruled from 1392-1910
*longest-lived of Korea's 3 dynasties
*King Sejong creates the hangul alphabet which led to a high literacy rate
*Yi Sun-Shin used "turtle ships" to ward off invading Japanese fleets
*reduced Buddhist influence and set up a government based upon Confucian principles
Korea's most celebrated ruler; replaced the complex Chinese system of writing with hangul
Korean admiral; considered one of Korea's great heroes; used "turtle ships" to ward off invading Japanese fleets
More than half of the Korean peninsula is made of?
B. coastal plains
With the development of hangul?
A. Chinese influence in Korea ended
B. Buddhism spread more quickly through Korea
C. Korean peasants were allowed to take the civil service exam
D. the literacy rate in Korea increased
Korea became a tributary state of China under what Korean dynasty?
Koreans traded their prized celadon, or?
A. blue-green porcelain
B. purple silk
C. landscape paintings on scrolls
D. flintlock rifles
The last and longest of Korea's dynasties was the?
A. Tang dynasty
B. Choson dynasty
C. Silla dynasty
D. Koryo dynasty
Koreans developed a writing system called hangul, which used?
A. one character to represent one word
B. symbols to represent ideas
C. pictures to show action
D. symbols to represent sounds
The creation of hangul led to?
A. revolts by Korean scholars
B. a high literacy rate
C. strikes by teachers
D. the invention of moveable type
What religion brought by missionaries took hold among rulers and nobles in Korea?
C. Mahayana Buddhism
D. Theraveda Buddhism
Which of the following was NOT a result of Korea's adoption of Confucian ideas?
A. women's lives became more restricted
B. Korea respected China as "an older brother"
C. Civil Service exams were given
D. Peasants could win political influence by passing an exam
The secret of making celadon was lost when what group overran Korea?
The use of what stopped the Japanese invasions of Korea?
B. "turtle ships"
C. floating mines
D. "Eel boats"
How did the seas help Japan?
*protected and isolated Japan
*helped preserve Japanese identity
*served as trade routes
Japanese lies in a region made up of a chain of volcanoes that encircle the Pacific Ocean, called?
Ring of Fire
*Japan's first and ONLY dynasty
*came to dominate the corner of Honshu
*center of Japanese government
*they claimed direct descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu, and chose the rising sun as their symbol
principle religion in Japan that emphasizes the worship of nature; shrines are dedicated to special sites like mountains, waterfalls, trees, and oddly shaped rocks
What did the Japanese adopt from China?
*Chinese ideas about government
*Chinese language and characters
*Confucian ideas and ethics
Who were the Japanese officials?
the educated sons of nobles NOT aristocracy or peasants who passed the civil service exam
How did Japan seek out Chinese influences?
Prince Shotoku of the Yamato clan, sent young nobles to study in China. Each visitor to China spent a year or more there, negotiating, trading, and studying.
capital in Japan in present day Kyoto; emperors performed traditional religious ceromonies here
Who was the best known Heian writer, who wrote, "The Tale of Genji," the world's first full length novel?
code of conduct for samurai during the feudal period in Japan; emphasized honor, bravery, and absolute loyalty to one's land
What is the order of the feudal system in Japan? (top to bottom)
*emperor (had no political power)
*shogun (actual ruler)
*daimyo (large landowners)
*samurai (warriors loyal to daimyo)
The seas surrounding Japan?
A. kept Korean influence out of Japan
B. protected and isolated Japan
C. served to inhibit trade
D. led to repeated Chinese invasions
Which of the following best describes Chinese influences on Japan?
A. the Japanese were never interested in things Chinese
B. the Japanese engaged in selective borrowing at first, and later began adopting all things Chinese
C. the Japanese adopted many Chinese customs at first, and later engaged in selective borrowing
D. the Japanese were only interested in adopting Chinese system of government
The process of adopting some customs, but not others is called?
A. partial conversion
B. selective borrowing
C. limited sharing
D. finite trading
What Buddhist sect gained widespread acceptance in feudal Japan?
What clan set up Japan's only dynasty?
A. The Shinto clan
B. The Shotoku clan
C. The Kyoto clan
D. The Yamato clan
In Japan, the worship of the forces of nature is called?
C. Zen Buddhism
Whom did the Japanese imitate in their new capital at Nara?
B. The Mongols
C. The Chinese
D. The Koreans
The world's first full length novel was?
A. "The Noblewoman's Tale"
B. "The Tale of Genji"
C. "The Water Margin"
D. "The House of Nara"
In feudal Japan, the real power lay in the hands of the?
What was the impact of the collapse of the Han dynasty?
China broke apart and remained divided for almost 400 years
How did the Tang dynasty reunite China?
this dynasty conquered territories deep in to central Asia and forced neighboring lands to become tributary states
Howe did the rising productivity in farming benefit China?
the rise in productivity created surpluses allowing more people to pursue commerce, learning, or the arts
Genghis Khan set an example by ruling conquered lands with toleration and justice. What religious ideas was he willing to listen to?
he listened to the ideas of Buddhists, Christians, Muslims, Jews, and Zorastrians
What occurred in 1435 that changed China's relationship with the rest of the world?
the Ming dynasty banned the building of sea going ships and haulted expeditions, thereby ending overseas exploration
*it's greatest rulers controlled much of present day Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia
*saw themselves as god kings
*Khmer rulers became Hindus
Societies in which inheritance descends through mothers are known as?
The straits that seperated island Southeast Asia from the mainland are called?
A. Bosphorus and Malacca
B. Malacca and Sunda
C. Hormuz and Gibaltar
D. Bosphorus and Hormuz
What natural phenomena controlled the trading patterns in the southern seas?
A. the typhoons
B. the tsunamis
C. the gulf stream
D. the monsoons
The key products of Southeast Asia were originally what?
A. cotton and wool
C. precious metal
D. silk and porcelain
What religion spread into Indonesia and has continued to dominate today?
A. Theravada Buddhism
B. Zen Buddhism
What kingdom in present day Myanmar was a Buddhist center?
A. the kingdom of Vietnam
B. the kingdom of Pagan
C. the kingdom of Srivijaya
D. the kingdom of Khmer
Khmer King Suryavarman II built the great temple complex called?
A. Angkor Wal
B. the Taj Mahal
D. the Bodhi Shrine
What people conquered and influenced the State of Annam, today part of Vietnam?
A. the Indians
B. the Mongols
C. the Chinese
D. the Pagans
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