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Terms in this set (100)
The most obvious problem of children with E/BD is
lack of close emotional ties
The problematic behavior of children and youth with EBD tends to be
episodic, highly variable, and situation specific
In contrast to the present federal definition, the proposed National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition definition of E/BD
recognizes that disorders of emotion and behavior may occur separately or in combination
Two broad dimensions of behavior disorders are
externalizing and internalizing
According to the federal government, what percentage of the school-age population is identified for special education services under the category of "emotional disturbance"?
less than 1%
Each of the following statements about children with E/BD is true EXCEPT
most students identified are psychotic
-aggressive acting-out behavior is most common
-juvenile delinquency and conduct disorder cannot be clearly distinguished from emotional disturbance
-boys outnumber girls
The causes of E/BD have been attributed to each of the following EXCEPT
membership in a particular cultural group
-biological disorders and diseases
-undesirable school experiences
-pathological family relationships
A biologically determined behavioral style is a
Each of the following statements about biological causes of E/BD is true EXCEPT
Causes are usually exclusively biological or exclusively psychological
-Medical approaches may be of little benefit if psychological and social aspects are not addressed
-Medical treatment is seldom the only intervention needed
-If a disorder has a biological cause it can still be an emotional or behavioral disorder.
Each of the following is true regarding school practices and development of E/BD EXCEPT
-Children may become better or worse, depending on how they are managed in the classroom
-A child's temperament and social competence interact with behaviors of peers and teachers.
We know which specific school experiences contribute to E/BD
-Teachers need to be aware of how their academic instruction and behavior management approaches may contribute to student's misconduct.
Despite problems in defining E/BD, most children with severe E/BD are easily recognized because
their behavior attracts immediate attention
Bert is a nine-year-old boy with E/BD. If he is like the typical child with E/BD, his IQ score probably falls in which range on standardized tests?
On standardized achievement tests, most students with E/BD perform...
below grade level
Many social learning theorists and behavioral psychologists believe that aggression is
a learned behavior
Which of the following statements about depression is true?
Suicide is among the leading causes of death among young people
All credible conceptual models of education have two objectives. They are...
controlling misbehavior and teaching academic and social skills
To maximize their effectiveness, programs for students with E/BD should provide a balance between...
behavioral control and academic/social instruction
The importance of integrated services for students with E/BD means that
schools, families, and community agencies should cooperate to meet students' needs
In comparison to the percentage of students with most other disabilities, students with E/BD are more likely to be educated in
more restrictive settings
Each of the following is true of instructional considerations for students with E/BD EXCEPT
Many incarcerated youths actually receive better instruction because they are in a highly structured environment
In the case of discipline, "zero tolerance" means that
the circumstances surrounding an incident are not weighed in deciding what the consequences should be; only the act itself is questioned
With respect to monitoring the progress of students with E/BD,
academic as well as behavioral assessment is usually necessary
It is difficult to design a specific education program for E/BD at the secondary level because
this category of youths is so varied
Transition from school to work is particularly difficult for many adolescents with E/BD for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
over-emphasis on vocational training rather than academics
-a high rate of dropping out of school
-neglectful, abusive, or inadequate family relationships
-behavior that is unacceptable to peers and employers
Among children and adolescents with E/BD, the future is especially grim for those with
A physician credited with being the first to address the issue of attention deficits in the professional literature is
Melchior Adam Weikard
Which of the following is a way that Still's cases were similar to today's population of persons with ADHD?
Many had average intelligence
A person diagnosed as ADHD is more likely than most people to exhibit
What do many authorities currently suggest should replace inattention as the primary deficit in ADHD?
Each of the following is a subdivision of ADHD according to the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual EXCEPT
-predominantly inattentive type
predominantly lethargic-inattentive type
-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type.
What percentage of the school-age population does the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report as having ADHD?
Students with ADHD receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in which category?
-other health impaired (OHI)
Each of the following is true EXCEPT
-Gender differences in diagnosis of ADHD are likely due to biological differences
-the growth of the Other Health Impaired category suggests that students with ADHD are identified as OHI
-Statistics show that ADHD is largely a U.S. phenomenon
-ADHD occurs much more frequently in boys than in girls.
All of the following are often used as part of the process of diagnosing children with ADHD EXCEPT
-teacher-and parent-rating scales
-a medical exam
-a clinician interviewing parents and child.
Which statement about the brains of people with ADHD is true?
Neuroimaging techniques have shown there is a neurological basis for ADHD
The part of the brain responsible for executive functions such as the ability to regulate one's own behavior is the
All of the following are true EXCEPT
-Exposure to lead and the abuse of alcohol by pregnant women increases the likelihood of ADHD
-It is highly unlikely that playing video games as a cause of ADHD
-It is highly unlikely that watching TV as a cause of ADHD
There is some suggestive evidence that food allergies may cause ADHD for a very small subgroup of children
All of the following are examples of behavioral inhibition EXCEPT
working for immediate gratification or short-term rewards
-the ability to wait one's turn
-resisting potential distractions while working
-refraining from interrupting in conversations
All of the following are ways that people with ADHD can exhibit problems with executive function EXCEPT
-They have difficulty with inhibitory control
-They have difficulty with working memory
They have difficulty telling right from wrong
-They have difficulty with mental flexibility
Compared to students with other disabilities, students with ADHD
are more disliked by their peers
ADHD has been shown to often coexist with each of the following EXCEPT
-emotional or behavioral disorders
About how many children with ADHD also have learning disabilities?
The National Institute of Health recommends all of the following for students with ADHD EXCEPT
a strong emphasis on student-directed learning.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, all of the following are recommendations for teaching children with ADHD EXCEPT
-Have a place for everything, keep everything in its place
-Follow the same routine every day
Take advantage of their inherent fear of punishment
-Have clear and consistent rules
A teaching model that includes content instruction by one teacher to a large group of students and remedial or supplementary instruction by the other teacher to a small group of students is
Which of the following statements about Ritalin is true?
Ritalin is not effective for about 30% of people who take it
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, the treatment for ADHD that shows the most effective immediate results is
combined medication management and behavioral management
For students with ADHD, assessment of progress
should focus on academics, not attention.
is similar to the approaches used for students with learning disabilities.
is best accomplished by analyzing performance on standardized tests.
Diagnosis of young children with ADHD is particularly difficult because
many preschoolers without ADHD exhibit a great deal of activity and impulsivity
Students with ADHD who have not received special education in high school
should obtain the documentation they need for colleges to provide them with appropriate accommodations
Each of the following is an element of the NJCLD definition of learning disabilities EXCEPT
Spelling is a specific manifestation of learning disabilities
-Learning disabilities are due to central nervous system dysfunction
-Learning disabilities can occur concurrently with mental retardation
-Learning disabilities are a lifelong condition.
One of the major advantages of the response to intervention method of identifying learning disabilities is that
it ensures that a student's low achievement is not simply due to ineffective instruction
In a typical school of 1000 students, about how many students identified as learning disabled would you expect to find?
Changes in the number of students in the learning disabilities category has been attributed to all of the following factors EXCEPT
-poor diagnostic procedures.
-increase in prevalence of mental retardation.
-increase in poverty and stress on families and children.
Each of the following is suggested as an explanation for why boys outnumber girls in the learning disabilities category EXCEPT
lower academic expectations for girls
Over the years, evidence has accumulated showing that learning disabilities
can be inherited
All of the following are true EXCEPT
Toxins have been ruled out as a potential cause of learning disabilities
-Learning disabilities tend to run in families
-Premature birth can result in learning disabilities
-Most geneticists agree that there is no single gene that causes learning disabilities.
John, Jim, and Ann are fifth-grade students with learning disabilities. Which one of the following statements best illustrates the concept of interindividual differences?
John has problems with math, while Ann has problems with reading.
By definition, every student with learning disabilities has
Students with poor phonological skills are most likely to have problems with which aspect of written language?
When writing creatively, students with learning disabilities tend to
use less complex sentence structures than their peers
An academic area that may cause just as much trouble for students with learning disabilities as reading is
Students with learning disabilities have what type(s) of memory problems?
short term memory or working memory and retrieval of information from long-term memory
Which one of the following problems best illustrates difficulty in metacognition?
Oscar neglects to slow down when reading a difficult passage
Individuals who have a cluster of disabilities in social interaction, math, visual-spatial tasks, and tactual tasks are referred to as having
nonverbal learning disabilities
Cognitive training involves all of the following EXCEPT
A method in which assistance is provided to students when they are first learning tasks, then gradually reduced until the students do the tasks independently is
Repeated readings is a technique specifically used to improve
Visual devices that employ lines, circles, and boxes to organize information are
A method involving breaking down academic problems into their component parts that can be taught separately and then combined is called
The most common placement for students with learning disabilities is
general education classroom
All of the following practices are typical of curriculum-based assessment EXCEPT
-use of curriculum the student has been exposed to
comparison of child to national norms
-frequent observation of child's behavior
-testing completed by classroom teacher
The most common testing accommodations for students with learning disabilities are
extended time and small group administration
Rather than talking about identification of learning disabilities at the preschool level, educators emphasize
According to the Council for Exceptional Children special education teachers of students with learning disabilities should be able to do all of the following EXCEPT
-address a variety of academic learning problems, such as reading, math, and spelling
-to teach academic skills in several different settings, such as individually or in small or large groups
-help students apply these academic skills in the general education content areas, such as science and social studies
teach the exact same content as the general education teacher
encoding and decoding
Encoding, or sending messages, is referred to as
"Phonology" refers to linguistic rules governing
particular sounds and how they are sequenced
The meanings and concepts people attach to words and sentences are referred to as
All of the following are examples of speech disorders EXCEPT
It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of communication disorders primarily because
there is so much overlap with other categories of disability
Approximately what percentage of children identified for special education receives services primarily for speech or language disorders?
Which statement is true concerning the comparison between the language of a normally developing child and one with a language disorder?
The sequence of development is similar, but milestones are reached at later years by the child with a disorder
Many children do not learn to produce all speech sounds correctly until they
are 8-9 years old
The theory that language depends on brain development and proper brain functioning and that language disorders resulting from brain dysfunction can sometimes be compensated for is the theory of
At present, which theory of communication is considered to have the most direct implications for speech-language pathologists and teachers?
pragmatic or social interaction
Each of the following statements about classification of language disorders is true EXCEPT
-A significant percentage of the children who show language impairments in kindergarten will have obvious reading problems by second grade
-If by age 2 years a child is not using two-word utterances, he might be considered to have early expressive language delay (EELD)
-About half the children whose language development is delayed at age 2 will gradually catch up developmentally
Difficulty in using language in social interactions and relationships is an exclusive feature of secondary language disorders
Specific language impairment refers to
language disorders with no identifiable cause
A failure of the child to understand the rules for producing the sounds of their language at an age-appropriate level and in a culturally appropriate way represents
The dimensions of voice are
pitch, loudness, and quality
What percentage of children and adults are considered stutterers?
Due to a brain injury, Ethan has difficulty selecting and sequencing speech. He knows he makes errors and what he wants to say, but simply cannot. Henry's condition is
The primary role of the classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspect of language?
Which one of the following is an example of an alternative question-asking strategy?
reducing the complexity of a question
The ability to transfer written words into speech is
All of the following are guidelines that teachers and parents can follow when talking with children with speech and language disorders EXCEPT
Lead the discussion
Which of the following statements about written language development is true?
As students progress throughout the grades, written language takes on increasing importance
Methods of progress monitoring that involve a cycle of teaching, followed by testing, and then reteaching as necessary are
Much of a child's language and social development depend on two characteristics of language interaction the child has with caregivers. What are the characteristics?
nature and quantity of the language
Each of the following statements about adolescents and adults with speech and language problems is true EXCEPT
-People with severe disabilities may need to be taught an alternative to oral language or be given an augmentative communication system
-There may be problems settings realistic goals for speech and language learning
-They might refer themselves to a speech-language pathologist because of social embarrassment
The loss of the ability to speak is typically more disabling than the loss of the ability to use language
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