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comparative structuresa poetic structure that is built around one one or more significant comparisons of two thingsnegative transferThe interference of previous learning in the process of learning something newSuggestopediaintended to lower the affective filter; physical surroundings and atmosphere in classroom are the vital factors to make sure that "the students feel comfortable and confidentCommunicative language teaching/communicative approachuse of real life skills; interacting meaningfully with the languageAudiolinguismrepetition and memorization of dialogues (often recorded, sometimes with a visual storyboard); makes use of drill and practice, often out of context, to ingrain correct linguistic formDictoglossan activity in which short pieces of language are read out loud to students at a normal speed. Students take down the key words and then attempt to reconstruct the passage from their general understanding of the text and from their own notes.Text reconstructionstudents reconstruct a passage (either spoken or written) or wordDirect methodrefrains from using the learners' native language and just uses the target language; use of visuals, realia and acting out; focus on question-answer patterns; teacher centered.Inductive approachhaving learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target languageLanguage experiencean approach to instruction based on activities and stories developed from the personal experiences of the learner.Total physical responsethe idea is to help the learner make direct bodily connections with language, thereby bypassing translation altogether.Experiential learningthe process of making meaning from direct experienceLearning by Teachingstudents take the teacher's role and teach their peers.Dialogue journalsa converstation in writing between a teacher and students. Teachers do not correct language, but can model forms in their responses.Jigsawa cooperative learning strategy that enables each student of a "home" group to specialize in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other groups who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return to the "home" group and teach the material to their group members.Segmentingsegmenting the predetermined types of sentences in word units, representing each word by a picture, a symbol, and/or a photo, and representing a portion of each of the segmented words which cannot be, or can hardly be, represented by the picture, the symbol, and/or the photo in a foreign language to be learned.Clozea technique in which words are deleted from a passage. The students insert words as they read to complete and construct meaning from the text.Reader Generated Questionsintroduce the topic, explore the reader's knowledge, students propose questions that they think will be answered in the reading and guess answers, read the text, check their guesses, and then do a final activity to synthesize the content of the reading.Semantic Domainsorganizing information according to categories of meaning; similar to graphic organizers and concept mapsVocabulary connectionsstudents make connections between vocabulary and their own life's experiences before reading a selections, thereby validating their prior knowledgeRhetorical approachacts of communication are viewed as performances rather than as static objects; writing and reading, speaking and listening, are always intertwined.Open classroomsidea that a large group of students of varying skill levels would be in a single, large classroom with several teachers overseeing them.Team teachinga group of two or more teachers working together to plan, conduct and evaluate the learning activities for a shared group of learners.Constructivismlearners make sense of new information through such means a problem solving, working together, and applying information to real-life situations.Behaviorismis a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors.Notional Functional Syllabusa way of organizing a language learning curriculum; instruction is organized not in terms of grammatical structure, but in terms of "notions" (i.e., a particular context in which people cummunicate) and "functions" (i.e., a specific purpose for a speaker in a given context).Content areathe "what" that students are taughtStrategy basedfocus on learner strategies (problem-solution; test taking skills; finding information)Form focusedany planned or incidental instructional activity that is intended to induce learners to acquire linguistic formsMeaning focusedmeaning-focused learning draws on the student's explicit (and existing) knowledge to help transfer the language towards its practical usage.Native Language Supportacademic support in the student's native languageTransitional bilingual educationbuild L2 in order to mainstream as quickly as possible. Children are provided with English language instruction, and academic instruction in their native language for some portion of the day. The goal is to prepare students for mainstream classes without letting them fall behind in subject areas. In theory, children transition out of these programs within a few years.Maintenance bilingual educationteach L2 and support L1 (i.e., aims to preserve and build on students' native language skills as they master English), with the goal of achieving full bilingualism (i.e., fluency in both languages).Developmental bilingual educationaims to preserve and build on students' native language skills as they master English (i.e., support and teach L1 and teach L2). The goal is fluency in both languages (i.e., achieving full bilingualism).Immersionoffer instruction entirely in English and use the native language only for clarification. The goal is to mainstream students within one or two years. Immersion programs are typically combined with an English-as-a-second-language (ESL) pull-out component.total immersionalmost one hundred percent of class time is spent in the foreign language.partial immersionabout half of the class time is spent learning subject matter in the foreign languagetwo-way immersionalso called "dual-" or "bilingual immersion", the student population consists of speakers of two or more different languages. Ideally speaking, half of the class is made up of native speakers of the major language in the area (i.e. English in the U.S.) and the other half is of the target language (i.e. Spanish). Class time is split in half and taught in the major and target languages. This way students encourage and teach each other, and eventually all become bilingual. The goals are similar to the above program. Different ratios of the target language to the native language may occur.Submersionone or two students are learning the foreign language, which is the first language (L1) for the rest of the class, thus they are "thrown into the ocean to learn how to swim" instead of gradually immersed in the new language.Chompskyuniversal grammar (deep structure)VygotskyZPD, scaffoldingCumminsBICS and CALPBICSbasic interpersonal communicative skillsCALPcognitive-academic language proficiencyCUPcommon underlying proficiencySUPseparate underlying proficiencyKrashenMonitor theoryComprehensible Input Hypothesis(I + 1): Acquisition occurs only within input (spoken or read), and so comprehensible input is the source of language acquisition Therefore, comprehensible input (i + 1) and simplified input should be the focus of instruction.Affective Filter Hypothesisindividuals have a language "filter", which acts as a kind of sieve of one's language input or reception. We filter input due to affective factors (such as boredom or anxiety), especially with regard to reception of spoken language. Since this filtering can reduce the ability to acquire language, it follows that less filtering is desirable.active voiceThe girls ate the pizza.passive voiceThe pizza was eaten by the girls.phoneticsfun-etics because you can amaze your friends with interesting soundslanguage interferenceeffect of language learners' first language on their production of the language they are learningpsycholinguisticsstudy of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce languagecommunicative competenceIt not only refers to a learner's ability to apply and use grammatical rules, but also to form correct utterances, and know how to use these utterances appropriately. (communicative approach)Natural Approachbeing exposed to the language (listening, reading) and by using it in a natural way