Corrections- Quiz 2

institutions designed to house convicted, adult felons, serving a sentence of one year or more
Prison Statistics
5.1 to 1 at state level

9.7 to 1 at federal level

1.5 million housed in federal and state prisons
Early Prisons
Isolation and intimidation

Maximized security fortresses

60 of the prisons built in the 1800s remain today

Oldest is Sing Sing (1825)

Walnut Street Jail- first prison in Philadelphia in 1870
Federal Bureau of Prisons
an agency within the US Department of Justice charged with housing and managing federal offenders

created in 1930 for progressive and humane care for federal inmates
Sentencing Reform Act of 1984
the act of congress that abolished parole, established determinate sentencing, and reduced the amount of good time available to federal offenders
Security Classification
to match offenders to institutions that have the physical security and staff resources to prevent escapes and control their behavior
2% of inmates, permanent lockdown 23 hours a day, isolation
Maximum Security
16% of inmates, 1-2 man cells, lowest inmate/guard ratio, walled structured, no dorms
Close-High Security Systems
11% of inmates, in-between levels, no dorms
Medium Security Prisons
35% of inmates, small and newer facilities, dorms
Minimum Security Prisons
31% of inmates, minimal or no perimeters, trustees, work their way down in security levels
Open Security Facilities
5% of inmates, non-secure, no armed guards, can be used for post release community based facilities
Special Housing Unit, supermax security, physical and sensory punishment
California Prison System
One of the largest state prison systems (second to Texas)

Recognized as one of the most progressive prison systems

History dates back to the 1850s

Hold an estimated 160,000 prisoners, 301,181 in corrections

33 state prisons, 28 camps, 5 prisoner/mother facilities

Notable Institutions
San Quentin
first California state prison, first confined on a ship and then put to work building their own prison is Marin County, the "prison that would not die," still operational today, 680 males on death row
Folsom State Prison
second oldest prison opening in 1880, hold 3600 inmates
Tehachapi State Prison
first women's prison opening in 1933, now a men's
Pelican Bay
supermax facility for shot callers
open dorms with no secure perimeters
open dorms with secure perimeters and armed security
individual cells with fenced perimeters and
individual cells with fenced perimeters and armed security inside and out
secure housing units
Selective Incapacitation
incarceration of high-risk offenders for preventative reasons based on what they are expected to do, not what they have already done
Inmate Code
the expected rules and behaviors represented by the model prisoner and reflecting the values and norms of prison society
the process whereby inmates take on folkways, mores, customs, and general culture of the penitentiary
family organization formed by female inmates who have roles of parents and children
the conditional release of inmates by a parole board prior to the expiration of their sentence, those entitled are serving indeterminate sentences, no constitutional obligation to parole
Parole Statistics
750,000 on parole

More men than women, more black than any other race, drugs are #1

Completion Rates- 47% successful completion (but could offend later), 39% violated, 14% abscond or die
Revocation of Parole Process
1) Determining if there was a violation

2) Possible stipulated agreement

3) Notice of violation

4) Possible warrant for arrest or custody

5) Preliminary revocation hearing

6) Full revocation hearing

7) Modification of conditions, return to supervision, return to prison
occurs when any of the conditions of parole have been violated
New Offense
involves an arrest and prosecution for the commission of a new crime
Discretionary Parole
release of inmates in which the decision is made by a parole board
Supervised Mandatory Release
a type of release in which inmates serve a determinate sentence and are then releases, but with a period of supervision to follow
Unconditional Mandatory Release
a type of release in which inmates serve the fill portion of their sentence and have no supervision after release from prison
Parole Guidelines
similar to sentencing guidelines, use predictive factors to determine the offenders' risk to the community and change for success, guidelines to prescribe a presumptive time to be served based on the seriousness of the crime and the factors predictive of success for each inmate
Status Offense
an activity that is considered a crime only because the offender is under the age of 18 and would not be considered a crime if committed by an adult, ex- running away from home, truancy, underage drinking
Dependent Children
children who, although committing no legal offense, may be without a parent or guardian, possibly because the parent is physically or mentally unable to act in that capacity
Neglected Children
children who have a family or guardian, but are not receiving proper care or the situation in the home is harmful to them and their upbringing
Delinquent Children
children who have committed an act that would be considered criminal if committed by an adult
Waiver to Adult Courts
because of the serious nature of a juvenile offender's crime, statutory exceptions were grated to allow the movement from juvenile to adult court for criminal processing
Age of Original Jurisdiction
the upper or oldest age that a juvenile court will have jurisdiction over categories of offenders

can be automatically transferred to adult court is CA at age 17, 16 for certain crimes and 14 for murder, other states as low as 8
Special Offenders
offenders whose circumstances, conditions, or behaviors require management or treatment outside the normal approach to supervision
Number incarcerated has increased 600% since 1980

Usually low income, under educated, unskilled, single, medical or psychological problems, history of abuse, mothers (75-80%)

Generally commit fewer, and typically non-violent crimes

7% of the prison population
Aging Offenders
Three types: first offenders sentenced at an older age, those who grew up in the system and been incarceration since a young age, and prison recidivists who keep coming back

Different needs, lack of family support, prey to younger prisoners

33% of the prison population and the fast growing group
Sex Offenders
offenders who have committed a legally prohibited sexual act or in some states any offender who commits any crime that was statutorily defined as sexually motivated

Actions secretive and planned in advance, high functioning persons, most released

Points of containment: public safety, parole officer's specialized training, all facets of the offenders life involved, maintain consistent public policy, ongoing program evaluation

4.7% of all offenders under correctional supervision
someone who is sexually attracted to and molests children
Collective Bargaining
the formal recognition of employee organizations and their right to negotiate with management regarding workplace issues
Prison Managers
Selection- cannot select their clients

Control- little or no control over clients release

Interpersonal Skills- deal with clients against their will

Reliance of Others- rely on clients that are forced to do work and not paid for it

Controlled Relationships- depend on maintenance of satisfactory relationships between clients and staff
Remunerative Power
compliance in exchange for material resources
Normative Power
compliance by manipulating symbolic rewards
Coercive Power
compliance by application of threat or physical force
Mission for Prisoners
keep them in, safe, in line, healthy and busy
Chain of Command
organizational positions in order of authority

hierarchy of staff positions, each with own duties and responsibilities
Deputy Warden Management
budgets and accounts
Deputy Warden Custody
institutional security, discipline, investigations, visitation
Deputy Warden Programs
medical, education, recreations, counseling
Inmate Balance Theory
for a prison system to operate effectively, officials must tolerate minor infractions, relax security measures, and allow inmate leaders to keep order
Successful Correctional Officers
Find a way to punish the offender while encouraging participation in educational, vocational, and treatment programs

Rewards and punishment to gain cooperation

Create interpersonal relationships and enlist inmates to maintain order

Need the cooperation of inmates to look good to their supervisors
Federal Prison Industries program that offers vocational training for inmates to reduce recidivism and give inmates a way to support themselves after incarceration
Rhodes vs. Chapman
a 1981 US Supreme Court decision that overcrowded conditions resulting in two inmates housed in cells designed for one person was not a violation of the Eight Amendment right from cruel and unusual punishment
Morrissey vs. Brewer
a 1972 US Supreme Court decision that once parole is granted, a liberty interest is created and offenders must have certain due process to revoke that liberty
Barefield vs. Leach
1974 federal court decision that a disparity of programs for female inmates could not be justified because the smaller number of female inmate made it more costly to provide program parity
Kent vs. US
1966 US Supreme court decision stating that juveniles are afforded the rights of due process, first major case challenging parens patriae
In re Gault
a 1967 US Supreme Court case requiring that, in hearing in which a juvenile may be committed to an institution, they must have the right to counsel, to notice of the charges against them, to question witnesses, and to protect against self-incrimination
In re Winship
a 1971 US Supreme Court decision stating that judges' decisions for juveniles must be based on being beyond reasonable doubt and not preponderance of evidence
McKeiver vs. Pennsylvania
1971 US Supreme court decision stating that jury trials are not required for juveniles because a jury of their "peers" is too young
Sanford vs. Kentucky
a 1989 US Supreme Court decision stating that the minimum age for the death penalty is 16 but changed to 18 in 2002 with Roper vs. Simmons

the temporary care of children in physically restricted facilities pending court disposition or transfer to another jurisdiction or agency
Preliminary Hearing

determination if a juvenile case should be dismissed, handled informally, or referred to the juvenile court
Consent Decree
Pretrial Diversion

an information handling of a juvenile justice case, in which the juvenile admits to wrongdoing and agrees to specific conditions of behavior
Charges Filed

the formal processing of an offense through juvenile court
Delinquency Petition

a statement of the delinquent acts a juvenile is alleged to have committed

to find a juvenile guilty of a delinquent act

the sanction for a juvenile found delinquent by a juvenile court
Residential Placement

supervision of a juvenile in the community after serving time in a juvenile correctional institution