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institutions designed to house convicted, adult felons, serving a sentence of one year or more

Prison Statistics

5.1 to 1 at state level

9.7 to 1 at federal level

1.5 million housed in federal and state prisons

Early Prisons

Isolation and intimidation

Maximized security fortresses

60 of the prisons built in the 1800s remain today

Oldest is Sing Sing (1825)

Walnut Street Jail- first prison in Philadelphia in 1870

Federal Bureau of Prisons

an agency within the US Department of Justice charged with housing and managing federal offenders

created in 1930 for progressive and humane care for federal inmates

Sentencing Reform Act of 1984

the act of congress that abolished parole, established determinate sentencing, and reduced the amount of good time available to federal offenders

Security Classification

to match offenders to institutions that have the physical security and staff resources to prevent escapes and control their behavior


2% of inmates, permanent lockdown 23 hours a day, isolation

Maximum Security

16% of inmates, 1-2 man cells, lowest inmate/guard ratio, walled structured, no dorms

Close-High Security Systems

11% of inmates, in-between levels, no dorms

Medium Security Prisons

35% of inmates, small and newer facilities, dorms

Minimum Security Prisons

31% of inmates, minimal or no perimeters, trustees, work their way down in security levels

Open Security Facilities

5% of inmates, non-secure, no armed guards, can be used for post release community based facilities


Special Housing Unit, supermax security, physical and sensory punishment

California Prison System

One of the largest state prison systems (second to Texas)

Recognized as one of the most progressive prison systems

History dates back to the 1850s

Hold an estimated 160,000 prisoners, 301,181 in corrections

33 state prisons, 28 camps, 5 prisoner/mother facilities

Notable Institutions

San Quentin

first California state prison, first confined on a ship and then put to work building their own prison is Marin County, the "prison that would not die," still operational today, 680 males on death row

Folsom State Prison

second oldest prison opening in 1880, hold 3600 inmates

Tehachapi State Prison

first women's prison opening in 1933, now a men's

Pelican Bay

supermax facility for shot callers


open dorms with no secure perimeters


open dorms with secure perimeters and armed security


individual cells with fenced perimeters and


individual cells with fenced perimeters and armed security inside and out


secure housing units

Selective Incapacitation

incarceration of high-risk offenders for preventative reasons based on what they are expected to do, not what they have already done

Inmate Code

the expected rules and behaviors represented by the model prisoner and reflecting the values and norms of prison society


the process whereby inmates take on folkways, mores, customs, and general culture of the penitentiary


family organization formed by female inmates who have roles of parents and children


the conditional release of inmates by a parole board prior to the expiration of their sentence, those entitled are serving indeterminate sentences, no constitutional obligation to parole

Parole Statistics

750,000 on parole

More men than women, more black than any other race, drugs are #1

Completion Rates- 47% successful completion (but could offend later), 39% violated, 14% abscond or die

Revocation of Parole Process

1) Determining if there was a violation

2) Possible stipulated agreement

3) Notice of violation

4) Possible warrant for arrest or custody

5) Preliminary revocation hearing

6) Full revocation hearing

7) Modification of conditions, return to supervision, return to prison


occurs when any of the conditions of parole have been violated

New Offense

involves an arrest and prosecution for the commission of a new crime

Discretionary Parole

release of inmates in which the decision is made by a parole board

Supervised Mandatory Release

a type of release in which inmates serve a determinate sentence and are then releases, but with a period of supervision to follow

Unconditional Mandatory Release

a type of release in which inmates serve the fill portion of their sentence and have no supervision after release from prison

Parole Guidelines

similar to sentencing guidelines, use predictive factors to determine the offenders' risk to the community and change for success, guidelines to prescribe a presumptive time to be served based on the seriousness of the crime and the factors predictive of success for each inmate

Status Offense

an activity that is considered a crime only because the offender is under the age of 18 and would not be considered a crime if committed by an adult, ex- running away from home, truancy, underage drinking

Dependent Children

children who, although committing no legal offense, may be without a parent or guardian, possibly because the parent is physically or mentally unable to act in that capacity

Neglected Children

children who have a family or guardian, but are not receiving proper care or the situation in the home is harmful to them and their upbringing

Delinquent Children

children who have committed an act that would be considered criminal if committed by an adult

Waiver to Adult Courts

because of the serious nature of a juvenile offender's crime, statutory exceptions were grated to allow the movement from juvenile to adult court for criminal processing

Age of Original Jurisdiction

the upper or oldest age that a juvenile court will have jurisdiction over categories of offenders

can be automatically transferred to adult court is CA at age 17, 16 for certain crimes and 14 for murder, other states as low as 8

Special Offenders

offenders whose circumstances, conditions, or behaviors require management or treatment outside the normal approach to supervision


Number incarcerated has increased 600% since 1980

Usually low income, under educated, unskilled, single, medical or psychological problems, history of abuse, mothers (75-80%)

Generally commit fewer, and typically non-violent crimes

7% of the prison population

Aging Offenders

Three types: first offenders sentenced at an older age, those who grew up in the system and been incarceration since a young age, and prison recidivists who keep coming back

Different needs, lack of family support, prey to younger prisoners

33% of the prison population and the fast growing group

Sex Offenders

offenders who have committed a legally prohibited sexual act or in some states any offender who commits any crime that was statutorily defined as sexually motivated

Actions secretive and planned in advance, high functioning persons, most released

Points of containment: public safety, parole officer's specialized training, all facets of the offenders life involved, maintain consistent public policy, ongoing program evaluation

4.7% of all offenders under correctional supervision


someone who is sexually attracted to and molests children

Collective Bargaining

the formal recognition of employee organizations and their right to negotiate with management regarding workplace issues

Prison Managers

Selection- cannot select their clients

Control- little or no control over clients release

Interpersonal Skills- deal with clients against their will

Reliance of Others- rely on clients that are forced to do work and not paid for it

Controlled Relationships- depend on maintenance of satisfactory relationships between clients and staff

Remunerative Power

compliance in exchange for material resources

Normative Power

compliance by manipulating symbolic rewards

Coercive Power

compliance by application of threat or physical force

Mission for Prisoners

keep them in, safe, in line, healthy and busy

Chain of Command

organizational positions in order of authority

hierarchy of staff positions, each with own duties and responsibilities

Deputy Warden Management

budgets and accounts

Deputy Warden Custody

institutional security, discipline, investigations, visitation

Deputy Warden Programs

medical, education, recreations, counseling

Inmate Balance Theory

for a prison system to operate effectively, officials must tolerate minor infractions, relax security measures, and allow inmate leaders to keep order

Successful Correctional Officers

Find a way to punish the offender while encouraging participation in educational, vocational, and treatment programs

Rewards and punishment to gain cooperation

Create interpersonal relationships and enlist inmates to maintain order

Need the cooperation of inmates to look good to their supervisors


Federal Prison Industries program that offers vocational training for inmates to reduce recidivism and give inmates a way to support themselves after incarceration

Rhodes vs. Chapman

a 1981 US Supreme Court decision that overcrowded conditions resulting in two inmates housed in cells designed for one person was not a violation of the Eight Amendment right from cruel and unusual punishment

Morrissey vs. Brewer

a 1972 US Supreme Court decision that once parole is granted, a liberty interest is created and offenders must have certain due process to revoke that liberty

Barefield vs. Leach

1974 federal court decision that a disparity of programs for female inmates could not be justified because the smaller number of female inmate made it more costly to provide program parity

Kent vs. US

1966 US Supreme court decision stating that juveniles are afforded the rights of due process, first major case challenging parens patriae

In re Gault

a 1967 US Supreme Court case requiring that, in hearing in which a juvenile may be committed to an institution, they must have the right to counsel, to notice of the charges against them, to question witnesses, and to protect against self-incrimination

In re Winship

a 1971 US Supreme Court decision stating that judges' decisions for juveniles must be based on being beyond reasonable doubt and not preponderance of evidence

McKeiver vs. Pennsylvania

1971 US Supreme court decision stating that jury trials are not required for juveniles because a jury of their "peers" is too young

Sanford vs. Kentucky

a 1989 US Supreme Court decision stating that the minimum age for the death penalty is 16 but changed to 18 in 2002 with Roper vs. Simmons









the temporary care of children in physically restricted facilities pending court disposition or transfer to another jurisdiction or agency


Preliminary Hearing

determination if a juvenile case should be dismissed, handled informally, or referred to the juvenile court

Consent Decree

Pretrial Diversion

an information handling of a juvenile justice case, in which the juvenile admits to wrongdoing and agrees to specific conditions of behavior


Charges Filed

the formal processing of an offense through juvenile court

Delinquency Petition


a statement of the delinquent acts a juvenile is alleged to have committed



to find a juvenile guilty of a delinquent act







the sanction for a juvenile found delinquent by a juvenile court



Residential Placement




supervision of a juvenile in the community after serving time in a juvenile correctional institution

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