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Science physical and chemical properties
Terms in this set (50)
Are characteristics of an element or compund than can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
Properties of a physical substance
Color, density, mass, and solubility
Examples of extrinsic properties
Mass and volume
What heat does water boil?
How are intrinsic properties useful?
When identifying an unknown substance
Is the amount of matter in a object
Is a force due to pull of gravity on a object
Is the amount of space in a object
Is how much mass a material has per unit of volume
Is how something looks
Is the smell that a substance gives off
Is how a stances feels to the touch
Is the temperature at which a liquid changes to liquid to gas, 100 c or 212 F
Is the temperature at which a liquid to solid 0c 32 F
Refers to the ability of a substance to dissolve in a solvent such as water or amount of that substance
Refers to the distribution of electrical charge within a molecule of substance
refers to how easily a liquid is able to flow.
ability of a substance to transmit energy. Usually this refers to its ability to conduct electricity, but it may also refer to its ability to conduct heat. Metals and solutions that contain ions, such as HCl in water, can usually conduct electricity.
refers to the ability of a given mass of a substance to decrease in volume in response to the application of an outside force.
refers to the ability of a substance to respond to a magnetic field. Metals such as iron, nickel, and cobalt are magnetic because they can be attracted by magnetic fields
are the characteristic ways in which an element or compound chemically behaves. They describe how substances react under certain conditions and with other substances. Chemical properties primarily depend on the types of atoms and bonds that are in a substance.
During a chemical change
A chemical reaction occurs
describes whether a substance reacts easily with other substances. For example, most metals will react with acids.
does not react easily with most other substances. The noble gases are the least reactive elements, and water is an example of an unreactive compound
The ability to react with acids or bases
describes whether or not a substance reacts chemically with an acid or a base
describes the ability of a substance to ignite or burn.
describes the ability of a substance to react rapidly with oxygen and release energy in the form of heat and/or light.
The ability to oxidize or the ability to rust
refers to the tendency of some metals to rust or corrode by reacting with oxygen in the air.
ability to tarnish
refers to the tendency of some metals to react easily with certain gases in the air. This causes discoloration at the surface of the meta
substance changes its appearance but not its identity or chemical composition. For example, paper appears different after it has been shredded. However, the substance is still paper.
Examples of physical change
liquid freezing into solid
shredding a piece of paper
pounding a metal, such as aluminum, into thin sheets
filtering a solid from a liquid
a solid expanding as it is heated
when a substance changes its identity because its particles have been rearranged. The new substance that is formed has its own new properties.
Examples of chemical change
silver metal reacting with sulfur to form sulfur sulfide, or tarnish
burning hydrogen gas in air
heating a compound until it breaks down or decomposes
the oxidation of metals in air, or rusting
the reaction of an acid and a base
Change in Temperature
Reactions may either produce heat or absorb heat. If two room temperature liquids are mixed and the mixture gets hotter or colder, then a chemical change is probably taking place. Putting a substance in the refrigerator is not a chemical change.
If two substances are mixed and their color changes, then a chemical reaction may be taking place. This type of color change does not include color blending. Mixing red and blue paint to make purple is a physical change, not a chemical one.
Making a New Solid or Gas
Another sign of a chemical change is the production of a solid precipitate or the development of a gas. A precipitate is a solid that forms from mixing two liquids. The production of a gas can be seen as bubbles. Freezing or boiling a substance, however, are physical changes
If a mixture is composed of a liquid and an insoluble solid, the mixture can be separated by filtration. During filtration, the mixture is poured through a filter. The solid is trapped by the filter, but the liquid goes through the tiny pores in the filter and can be collected in a container beneath.
If a mixture contains a soluble solid dissolved in a liquid, the two mixture components can be separated by evaporating the liquid off. As the solvent evaporates, the solid solute remains behind as a residue.
Sifting, also called screening or sieving, is a method of filtering solids from one another based on particle size. For example, sifting could be used to remove small pebbles and shells from sand. A sieve or sifter like the one shown above is often used in kitchens to remove lumps from flour
law of conservation of matter
matter is neither created nor destroyed. The mass of a substance will remain constant whether it is whole, separated into pieces, or in a different state. If a substance undergoes a chemical change, the masses of the products will equal the masses of the original reactants
Chemical equations can demonstrate how matter is conserved in a reaction because the number of reactant atoms always equals the number of product atoms. Chemical equations have the following general format:
are the starting substances in the reaction. Products are the substances that the starting substances are transformed into; they are the substances that are produced following the reaction. The equation below shows the reaction of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to form water.
Open and Closed Systems
Closed systems should be used when studying chemical reactions. When a chemical reaction takes place in a closed system, such as a closed container, all of the substances involved in the change are retained, and their masses can be measured to show that mass has been conserved. In an open system, such as an open container, some of the substances involved in the change may escape, and it would be impossible to measure the mass of those products.
A pure substance is a type of homogeneous matter that is made up of only one kind of material. All the particles (i.e., atoms or molecules) in a pure substance are exactly the same, and the same properties are exhibited throughout the substance. There are two main types of pure substances: elements and compounds.
Elements are the simplest pure substance, because they are made up of only one type of atom. For example, the element carbon is only made up of carbon atoms, and the element zinc is only made up of zinc atoms. The simplest unit of an element that still has the properties of that element is the atom. However, the atoms of some elements are naturally found bound to other atoms of the same element in two-atom units called diatomic molecules.
Compounds are pure substances that are made up of more than one type of element, chemically combined in a fixed ratio. Depending on the type of compound, its simplest unit may be a molecule or a repeating crystal pattern.
Although the properties of a compound differ from the properties of the elements that compose it, the molecules of a compound exhibit the same properties as one another. Also, since the elements within a compound are chemically combined, they can only be separated by chemical changes, such as the change caused by electrolysis.
Mixtures are made up of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. Because they are not chemically combined, the substances retain their own individual properties of matter, even though they are mixed together. Furthermore, mixtures can be separated by physical means, such as filtration or distillation.
A homogeneous mixture is uniform. That is, it has the same properties throughout. Solutions and alloys are two types of homogeneous mixtures. In a solution, one substance is dissolved into another substance (e.g., salt water, instant coffee). The substance being dissolved is called the solute, and the substance doing the dissolving is called the solvent. In solutions and alloys, the solute is evenly distributed in the solvent. In aqueous solutions, water is the solvent. A solution of a solid in a liquid can generally be separated through the process of vaporization. An alloy is a solid solution in which one metal is dissolved into another (e.g., the alloy brass is made of copper and zinc).
A heterogeneous mixture does not have the same properties throughout. In fact, the substances in a mixture often keep their own separate identities and individual properties. For example, a tossed salad is a heterogeneous mixture, and its properties are not the same throughout. Instead, each part of the salad (e.g., lettuce, tomato, croutons, etc.) keeps its own individual identity and properties.
Mixtures can occur between all phases of matter
gas/gas (ex: air)
gas/liquid (ex: oxygen or carbon dioxide and water)
liquid/liquid (ex: fruit juice and water)
solid/liquid (ex: sugar and water)
solid/solid (ex: metal alloys, such as bronze or steel)
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