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American Government Unit 2 (Ch. 5-9)
Terms in this set (83)
a group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office.
the range of political views.
the strong support of their party and its policy stands.
are contests in which only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot.
the largest number of votes cast for the office; need not be a majority, or more than half of all votes cast in any given election.
the two major parties find common ground; they work together to shape election laws in such a way that minor party or independent candidates have a much harder time winning elective office.
a general agreement among various groups in matters of fundamental importance.
a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government.
the current officeholder.
the practice of awarding public offices, contracts, and other governmental favors to those who supported the party in power.
emphasizes a devotion to the interests of a particular region.
those based on a particular set of beliefs - a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters.
focus on a single public question; their names have usually indicated their primary concern.
Economic Protest Parties
these have been rooted in periods of economic discontent; these groups have not had any clear-cut ideological base; they have proclaimed their disgust with the major parties and demanded better times, and have focused their anger on such real or imagined enemies as the monetary system.
those that have split away from the major parties.
a unit onto which cities are often divided for the election of city council members.
the smallest unit of election administration; the voter in each cast their ballots at on polling place located within this.
means the right to vote.
a synonym for the right to vote.
the potential voting population.
citizens denied the right to vote in the nations population.
a tax imposed by several States as a qualification for voting.
foreign-born residents who have not become citizens and are generally denied the right to vote.
persons who plan to live in a State for only a short time.
a procedure of voter identification intended to prevent fraudulent voting.
state law directs local election officials to review the lists of registered voters and to remove the names of those whoa re no longer eligible to vote; usually done every two to four years.
the official lists of qualified voters in each precinct.
a person's ability to read and write.
the practice of drawing electoral district lines (the boundaries of the geographic area from which a candidate is elected to a public office) ignored to limit the voting strength of a particular group.
a court order that either compels or restrains the performance of some act by a private individual or public officials.
the process of seeking U.S. Department of Justice approval for all changes related to voting.
in the congressional held in the even-numbered years, between presidential elections.
many voters exhaust their patience and/or their knowledge as they work their way down the ballot.
ones own influence or effectiveness on politics.
process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions.
measurable differences between the partisan choices of men and women today.
the loyalty of people to a particular political party.
the practice of voting for candidates of only on party in an election.
the practice of voting for the candidates of more than on party in an election.
people who have no party affiliation.
the naming of those who will seek office.
regularly scheduled elections at which voters make the final selection of officeholders.
a group of like-minded people who meet to select the candidates they will support in an upcoming election.
an intraparty election; it is held within a party to pick that party's candidates for the general election.
a party's nominating election in which only declared party members can vote.
also known as the crossover primary - a party's nominating election in which any qualified voter can cast a ballot.
every voter received the ballot - a long one that listed every candidate, regardless pf party, for every nomination to be made at the primary.
the two top vote getters in the first primary face one another to determine the party's nomination, and the winner of that vote becomes the part's nominee.
these are elections in which candidates are not identified by party labels.
the medium by which a voter registers a choice in an election.
a process by which they could vote without going to their polling places on election day.
occurs when a strong candidate running for an office at the top of the ballot helps attract voters to other candidates on the party's ticket.
the place where the voters who live in precinct actually vote - is located somewhere in or near each precinct.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
the political arms of special-interest groups and other organizations with a stake in electoral politics.
a grant of money, usually from a government.
those contributions that are given directly to candidates for their campaigns for Congress or the White House, are limited in amount, and must be reported.
funds given to parties or to other political organizations, in unlimited amounts, to be used for such "party-buliding activities" as voter registration or get-out-the-vote drives or for campaigns for or against particular public policies.
include politics, public issues, and the making of public policies - those events and issues that concern the people at large.
those attitudes held by a significant number of people on matters of government and politics.
include those means of communication that reach large, widely dispersed audiences simultaneously.
people with whom one regularly associates, including friends, classmates, neighbors, and co-workers.
any person who, for any reason, has an unusually strong influence on the views of others.
refers to the instructions or commands a constituency gives to its elected officials.
private organizations whose members share certain views and objectives and who work to shape the making and the content of public policy.
Public Opinion Poll
devices that attempt to collect information by asking people questions.
were polls that sought to read the public's mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people.
a term that means the whole population that the poll aims to measure.
a representative slice of the total universe.
is composed of randomly selected people, and so it is one in which all the members of its universe stand an equal chance of being interviewed.
one deliberately constructed to reelect the major characteristics of a given universe.
a means of communication; it transmits some kind of information.
"blogs" - website postings usually devoted to some specific subject.
the societal problems that the nation's political leaders and the general public agree need government attention.
snappy reports that can be aired in 30 to 45 seconds or so.
includes all of the goals that a government pursues in the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved - everything from seat belts, speed limits, and zoning to flood control, old-age pensions, and the use of military force in international affairs.
most segments of the business community also have their own interest groups; they number in the hundreds and include the American Trucking Association, the Association of American Railroads, the National Restaurants Association, and many more.
an organization of workers who share the same type of job or who work in the same industry; they press for government policies that will benefit their members.
an organization that works for the best interests of the overall, community, rather than the narrower interests of one segment. It seeks policies that benefit all or most people, whether or not they belong to or support the organization.
the process by which organized interests attempt to affect the decisions and actions of public officials.
those people who try to persuade public officials to do those things that interest groups want them to do.
Amicus Curiae Brief
consists of written arguments presented to a court in support of one side in a dispute.
pressures from members of an interest group or from the people at large, often beginning at a very basic level - to bear on public officials.