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Terms in this set (94)
Explain the meaning of the term homeostasis, negative feedback and positive feedback.
Explain why proteins come in an almost unlimited variety of shapes.
What are atoms, elements, isotopes and molecules?
Define 4 types of organic macromolecules and their building blocks, and give examples of each type.
Carbohydrates(C:H:O 1:2:1)(Monosaccharides and Polysacharides) (glucose)
Lipids (hydrophobic) (C,H,O) (fat, cell membrane, steriods)
(triglycerides/fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids)
Proteins (CHON) built from (amino acids)
Peptides are two or more amino acids
Nuecleic Acids (CHONP) base of nucleotides DNA RNA
What are pH, acid, base and buffer?
Discuss the importance of enzymes in living organisms.
Describe how phospholipids are orientated in the plasma membrane and why they orient that way.
oriented with hydrophilic heads faceing outward and hydrophobic tails facing inward to avoid contact with water they form a double layer protecting the hydrophobic tails.
List and describe a cell's internal structures and major organelles
Discuss various ways of transporting material across cell membranes (passive vs active transport, endocytosis vs exocytosis, different types of passive transport)
Explain what happens to cells placed in a high-salt or low-salt environment and why.
hypertonic, hydroponic, isotonic
Define cellular respiration
Explain the stages of ATP production from glucose, and which stage yeild the most ATP.
3)Citric Acid Cycle
4) Electron Transport System (MOST ATP)
Describe what happens to a cell's ability to produce ATP when oxygen is not available.
Name the four main tissue types and list their main functions.
Epithelial- covers exposed surfaces or cavities, skin, lungs
Connective- most diverse, blood, cartilage, bone
Muscle (Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth)
Nervous Tissue Neurons and glial cells (generate/transmit electrical impulse)
Compare and contrast dermis vs epidermis of the skin.
Define the following cavities: thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, pericardial and pleural cavities.
Define the anatomical position.
Be able to use the directional terms, sectional (plane) terms, and movement terms.
Define the components of skeletal system: bones, carilages and ligaments
Define compact vs spongy bones
Discuss the anatomy of a long bone
The joints are called epiphysis and the long rod area is called diaphysis and it has compact bone suruonding it, spongy on the inside and hollow in the center
Define osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts, and hormones that affect their activities.
Explain how a long bone grow longer
What is osteoporosis?
reduced bone mass
Define bone remodeling (how a long bone of an adult may change over many years)
Name the axial skeleton (major bones of the skull, different sections of the vertebral column, sternum & ribs) and all appendicular skeleton.
Define fibrous, cartilagenous and synovial joints, and give examples of each.
What's a slipped disk?
Describe the features of synovial joints.
What are osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis?
Discuss the function of muscle in our body.
Describe the organization of a skeletal muscle (fascicle, muscle fiber)
Describe the anatomy of a muscle fiber (multi-nucleated, striated, myofibrils, thin (actin) & thick (myosin) filaments, T-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum)
Define a sarcomere.
Explain how sarcomere shorten, and how that relates to muscle contraction.
Role of motor neuron, neurotransmitter, action potential, calcium, and troponin-tropomyosin complex)
Explain how a muscle relax.
Explain what causes rigor mortis.
List the source of energy that a muscle fiber may use to make more ATP.
Discuss the reasons for muscle fatigue.
Define a motor unit, and how the size and the number of motor units in a skeletal muscle affect muscle strength and fine motor control.
Describe the differences between slow twitch vs fast twitch muscles, isotonic vs isometric contraction.
Compare and contrast skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles.
Describe the components and functions of the circulatory system.
Describe the components of blood and each of their functions (including different types of white blood cells).
Describe the functions of blood.
Explain where the cells of the blood come from.
Describe the anatomy of red blood cells, and how hemoglobin works, including the differences between oxy- vs deoxy-hemoglobins.
What is anemia?
What is blood-doping?
What is blood transfusion and blood typing?
How does blood typing work (antigen vs antibody)
Describe how ABO blood typing works, and explain the differences between ABO and Rh.
Explain the major steps in hemostasis (blood clotting).
What is hemophilia?
Discuss the transportation of blood through the circulatory system (pulmonary vs systemic circuit, different types of blood vessels)
Describe the structure and function of the heart (path of blood through different chambers, valves, and blood vessels, cardiac cycle, and conduction system), including coronary arteries.
Differentiate between normal and abnormal blood pressure, systolic vs diastolic pressure.
Identify various cardiovascular disorders (aneurysm, arteriosclerosis/ atherosclerosis, embolism, myocardial infraction (heart attack), heart failure, hypo/hypertension, ventricular fibrillation, arrhythmia)
Describe factors that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease.
You are working in a biochemistry research lab. Your mentor has isolated a macromolecule from cells.
What are the 4 types of biological macromolecules in our body?
Chemical analysis of this isolated macromolecules shows that it is made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus. To which group of the biological macromolecules does this belong?
You are asked to run a further experiment to break down this macromolecule into its subunits (building blocks). Knowing the type of macromolecule, what do you expect to find? What do you expect this macromolecule is made of?
You were feeling sick and your doctor sent you to the diagnostic labs for a blood test. When a phlebotomist drew your blood, he accidentally used a collection tube that was already half filled with distilled water. What would happen to the red blood cells in this tube? Explain your reasoning.
Potassium cyanide knocks out the last enzymes facilitating the electron transport system. Based on what you know about the electron transport system, what effect do you predict that potassium cyanide have on the cell's metabolism? What organelle is affected most?
Some cells in the pancreas synthesize and secrete protein hormones known as insulin.
Order the following components of the pancreatic cell, according to the path of insulin synthesis to secretion: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Plasma membrane, Ribosome, Secretory vesicle
[extra credit] What is this mechanism of moving bulk materials from inside to outside of the cell called?
In an experiment with human tissue culture cells, you discover that a new drug blocks cell growth by inhibiting the cells to divide. Name the organelle in which this drug is most likely having an effect.
Estrogen is a steroid hormone. Which membrane transport mechanism is the most likely mechanism for this hormone to enter a cell?
Diffusion directly through the lipid bilayer (also known as "simple diffusion")
Diffusion via membrane channel proteins
Active transport by membrane pump
speed up chemical reactions and are consumed in the process.
are usually nonspecific and therefore capable of binding to many different substrates.
have specific locations to which the substrate binds.
Hormones are secreted by _____.
_____ is the layer of skin, which is made of connective tissue, and sweat glands, capillaries, hair follicles, and goose bump muscles are located.
All of the above.
(T/F) Keratinocytes are responsible for the skin pigmentation.
The bone cells that break down bone matrix are the ___.
The ends of the long bone is called the __.
The loss of hyaline cartilage at the synovial joint results in
Decrease in the density of the bone due to the loss of bone matrix is called ___.
Give one example of negative feedback mechanism in the skeletal system, by naming the cells and hormones involved.
Explain why we stop growing taller after puberty, by explaining the mechanism of bone growth.
(T/F) The movement of swinging your limbs away from your body (to the side) is called adduction.
Make a sentence using the word "distal" with respect to the locations of bones. (ex. Bone 1 is distal to bone 2.)
Why does bone injury heals much faster than tendon or ligament injuries?
The smallest repeating unit of the muscular system found in a muscle fiber that is responsible for muscle contraction is
What is the role of ATP in muscle function?
Provides energy which enables myosin to form cross-bridges with actin.
Enable myosin to detach from actin.
Provides energy to transport calcium ion back into storage.
(T/F) Slow-twitch muscle fibers are good at carry out aerobic respiration because they have myoglobins and many mitochondria.
_____________________ muscle is responsible for involuntary contractions of the stomach.
Give one example of activities that use isomertric muscle contraction.
Explain the role of calcium ion in muscle contraction.
Explain what "rigor mortis" is, and why it happens with the mechanism of muscle contraction & relaxation.
Which muscle has the smallest number of muscle fibers in a motor unit?
Muscles of eye movement
Muscles of finger movement
Which of the following best describes the action of sarcomeres within a muscle cell during a contraction?
Only the sarcomeres on the ends of the muscle shorten in a weak contraction.
Sarcomeres shorten in different degrees, depending on the amount of actin and myosin they contain.
Each sarcomere shortens a little.
Sarcomeres in the center of the muscle shorten more than sarcomeres on the ends of the muscle.
The following events are associated with muscle contraction. Which one of the following best describes the order in which these events occur, following the initiation of a contraction by a nerve impulse?
1. T tubules transmit electrical impulses throughout the muscle cell.
2. Myosin contacts actin and pulls it toward the center of the sarcomere.
3. Acetylcholine binds to receptors on the muscle.
4. Troponin-tropomyosin complex shifts to expose myosin binding sites.
5. Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Jason has just spent four weeks in Rocky Mountain National Park, studying plants that grow above 10,000 feet elevation. Which of the following would be a likely change in his blood because of time spent at high elevation?
Globulins in plasma
Unlike white blood cells, red blood cells lose their ________ and ________ as they mature.
Nucleus, nuclolus, cytoplasm, ATP, organelles, plasma membrane, flexibility, shape
Which one of the following population of cells is most markedly increased during bacterial infections?
Neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, RBC, lymphocytes
Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding arterioles and arteries?
Arterioles are smaller and have less smooth muscle than arteries.
Blood pressure in arterioles is greater than the blood pressure in arteries.
Arteries do not contain valves, whereas arterioles do.
Small sphincter muscles regulate the flow of blood from arteries into arterioles.
Arterioles and arteries transport blood from capillaries to veins.
(T/F) Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with nutrients and oxygen.
The movement of blood through the pulmonary circuit transports __________.
oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
deoxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
deoxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart
oxygenated blood from the lungs directly to the body
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