Chapter 12 Anthropology
Terms in this set (22)
The process of determining who get what, when, and how
who plays a central role in maintaining social order across the globe
state governments and inter nation political coalitions
four basic kinds of political systems
bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states
bands and tribes
chiefdoms and states
characteristics of uncentralized political systems
-marriage and kinship form their principle means of social organization
-economies are primarily of subsistence type with small populations
-important decisions are made among adults
-power is shared
uncentralized system relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a specific territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically and economically independent.
Example of band - Bushmen
Consists of family groups that have a head leader - punishment of wrongdoing is usually led by gossip and resolutions are among all adults for what is equal to everyone rather than rules or laws.
uncentralized system - wide range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory
Big Man in Malanesia
Tribe group. Leadership is informal - power is personal (holds no political office) - Prestige is to gain followers who benefit from or depend on his success.
Big man is called "tonowi" aka rich one - male, wealthy, generous, and eloquent. Represents the group and acts as judge when conflicts occur within the group. Acquires political power by giving loans.
Characteristics of centralized political systems
-political authority is concentrated on a single individual or group of individuals.
-relies on institutionalized power, authority, and even coercion.
A politically organized territory centrally ruled by a chief heading a kin-based society with prestige ranking and a redistributive economy.
a political institution established to manage and defend a complex, socially stratified society occupying a defined territory.
people who share a collective identity based on a common culture, language, territorial base, and history.
societies in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences. (About 75% of the worlds states)
imposition of obedience or submission by force or intimidation. Centralized political systems may rely on this
what is the organizing political unit in many tribal societies
Clan - people who consider themselves descended from a common ancestor. or they can be the "Big Man"
difference between authority and coercion
authority is based on the socially accepted rules or codified laws binding people together as a society.
two kinds of cultural control
(1) Internalized or self-control : what is proper and what is not. (2) Externalized control: sanctions or social directives designed to coerce conformity to cultural standards of what is socially acceptable behavior.
law in centralized vs. uncentralized political systems
centralized - authority rests with government and court system. uncentralized - give authority directly to injured party
What non-violent approaches do humans use to resolve conflicts?