economicsThe Journal of the American Law and Economics Association (Vol. 3, 2001) published the results of a study of appeals of federal civil trials. The accompanying table, extracted from the article, gives a breakdown of 2,143 civil cases that were appealed by either the plaintiff or the defendant. The outcome of the appeal, as well as the type of trial (judge or jury), was determined for each civil case. Suppose one of the 2,143 cases is selected at random and both the outcome of the appeal and the type of trial are observed.
$$
\begin{matrix} \text{ } & \text{Jury} & \text{Judge} & \text{Totals}\\ \text{Plaintiff trial win-reversed} & \text{194} & \text{71} & \text{265}\\ \text{Plaintiff trial win-affirmed/dismissed} & \text{429} & \text{240} & \text{669}\\ \text{Defendant trial win-reversed} & \text{111} & \text{68} & \text{179}\\ \text{Defendant trial win - affirmed/dismissed} & \text{731} & \text{299} & \text{1,030}\\ \text{Totals} & \text{1,465} & \text{678} & \text{2,143}\\ \end{matrix}
$$
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