gram neg- microaerophillic, spiral shaped- motile w/ flagella- 30-50% is colonized with it.
bacteria get washed out by pancreatic juice and bile- gram + lactobacilli- metabolize compunds that humans cannot.
is holding tank for bacteria that help in digestion-slow flow rate-high bacteria colonization-bacteroids & bifidobacteria
risk factors for periodontal disease
smoking, genetic predispotion, pregnancy, puberty, stress, medication, diabetes, poor nutrition
inflammation of stomach and intestine caused by microorganism or ingestion of toxin- stomach flu
gastroenteritis is caused by
contaminated food or water, contact w infected person, unwashed hands, dirty food utensils, and contaminated work space. ingestion of bacterial toxins
Helicobacter peptic ulcer
transmitted via food, water, kissing- weightloss, poor appetite, burping, nausea, vomiting- antibiotics, h2 blockers, proton pump, & stomach lining protector drug
salmonella- enterobacteriacae family- faculative anerobe, rod, gram-neg, non sporing-typhoid fever, food born illness- diarrhea, fever, cramps- contaminated or uncooked food.5-7 days
caused by salmonella enterrica-serotype typhi-rod, gram neg, flagella-contaminated food or water-high fever 103-104, headache, nausea, pain, diarrhea, cough, constipation.
bacillialy dysentry- in humans and monkeys- gram neg, non sporing, rod shaped- produces shiga toxin- destroys tissue- dysentry- febrile sezures
camplybacter jejuni- C. fetus & C. coli- vibroid or helical- gram neg- motile- microerophilles- raw poultry- raw milk, nonchlorinated water
enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)
dysentry-no toxins- allow adherance to intestinal epithelium and disrupts microvilli
Listeria monocytogenes, gram +, non sporing rod, fac. anaerobic intracellular-can spread to CNS- spread to circulatory-11-70 days-20-30 % mortality
in flora of nose, staph aureus (no spores), heat resistant, high osmotic resistance, high salt concentration
vibrio cholerae- watery diarrhea, vomit, leg cramps- gram neg- fac anaerobe- vibroid or rod- chloratoxin and enterotoxin
candida albicans- flora- illness and medications cause change- antibiotic, birth control and steroids, diabetes, HIV and cancer
mold- Aspergillus flavus- corn and peanuts- produces aflatoxin- causes hepatitus, immunosupression, and helptocellular carcinoma- abcess in GI tract- systemic
fungus- claviceps purpures- produces alkaloids- hallucinations, GI upset, gangrene, st anthonys fire (pain in limbs)
Giardialamblia or G. intestinalis- greasy stools, flatuence, cramps, nausea- 1-2 weeks after infection, last 2-6 weeks
largest protozoan parasite of humans, pigs and monkeys- fecal/oral transmission- watery stools, anorexia, nausea and pain- tetracycline to treat and metronidazole and todoqunol
Entameoba histolytica (Amebiosis)
100k annual mortality- water containing cysts or fecal oral route- no animal reservoir- acute amoebic colitis
cryptosporidium- fecal-oral route- uncooked meat- water- resistant to chlorine (swimming pools)- most common water born in US.
Ascaris lumbricoides- asymptomatic- most common worldwide worm infection- fruits and veggies- surgery for heavy infestation- treat: albendazole & pyratel panote, and mebanzote
necaturiasis- dogs, cats, and humans- adult attaches to villi of intestine and sucks blood- heavy infection- anemia
circulates brain ventricles, central canal of spinal cord and subarachoid, low level of compliment proteins, bacteria in CSF can multiply w/ little immune response
inflammation of the meninges- caused my microorganisms or injury- bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoans
during CNS infection (meningitis)...
increase in lymphocytes, monocytes, and proteins.CSF remains clear
During bacterial infection of meningitis...
rapid increase in granulocytes and proteins- CSF becomes trubid
inflammation of brain alters blood-brain barrier and allows drugs in- lymphatic and bloodstream
1-2 days incub.- initial symp- nausea, vomit, stiff neck, fever headache-secondary: confusion, sleepiness, light sensitive, coma- less common, more severe.
Treatment of bacterial meningitis
penacillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, lefotaxime, vanc and ceftriaxone
E. coli and Kleibsiella normally causes meningitis due to?
head injury, brain or spinal injury, sepsis, or nonsocomial infection
Neisseria meningitis disease info:
spread resp or person 2 person- incub. 1-3 days- sore throat, headache, drowsiness, fever, stiffneck, photosensitivity- hemorrhagic skin rash= septicemia- can cause amputation
Haemophilus influenzae meningitis
H. influenza, gram neg, coccobacillus, normal flora of throat-can enter blood stream cause pneumonia, otis media, epiglotidis, meningitis-Resp droplet- IV antibiotics & steroids- 6 serotypes by their capsular polysaccharide.
most common- streptococcus pneumoniae- gram +, encapsulated faculative anaerobic diplcoccus- 90 serotypes- vaccine for high risk- immune response against capsular serotype
listeria monocytogenes- gram + coccobacillus-foodborne illness-fatal-4 days- from blood stream to CNS
Listeria meningitis symptoms
fever, personality changes, uncoordinated movement, seizures, conciousness, tremors
listeria in pregnancy
microphages hiding from immune system can cross placenta-early onset:infected during pregnancy- late onset: infect during childbirth- treated w/ antibiotics
C.botulism, gram +, anaerobic, spore forming rod. produces neurotoxin- 7 serotypes A-G-A,B,E,F= human
Transmission of botulism
Toxin enters body, toxin binds to nerve endings @ neuromuscluar junction- stops release ACH, inhibits- fOODBORNE, infant, wound, inhalation
Symptoms of botulism
muscle weakness, dry mouth, diff swallowing, blurred vision, slurred speech, vomit and diarrhea, drooping eyelids
hansens disease-Mycobacteria leprae- gram +, acid fast, pleomorphic, intracellular- aerobic bacillus- waxy coating- skin, PNS, mucous membranes: nose, throat, eyes
pinkeye- inflammation of transparent membrane that lines eyelid and eyeball- redness, itchy, roughness, discharge, teary
aseptic meningitis- mosquitos- no treatment, runs course-bulging of fontanel in infants
zoonotic- ssRNA, bullet shaped-causes encephalitis- saliva- fatigue, muscle aches, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, headache, nausea, vomiting and abd pain.
immunocompromised- head ache, vomit, photophobia, blurry vision, stiff neck, seizure, confusion, coma
toxoplasmagondii-obligate intracellular- undercooked meat- speech, seizures, confusion, lethargy
TSE- transmibble spongiform encephal.- neurodegenerative disease, long incubation, always fatal, no cure-dementia, personality change, memory and brain funct.
defective gene coding for PRNP protein- multicentric amyloid plaques in frontal lobe
Animal prion disease
Bovine spongiform ecephalopathy: madcow- chronic wasting disease, scrapie, feline SE, ungulate SE
cardiovascular: heart, blood and blood vessels and lymphatic: lymph, lymphatic tissue, vessels and organs- returns excess tissue fluid to cardiovascular system (direct acess)
trauma- formation & platelet & fibrin thrombi on valve- red spots and nodes
viral, bacteria or fungi- chest pain, ankle/foot sweliing, dry cough, can't breath lying down, fever
from hypotension- loss of apetite, fever, chills, lethargic, accelerated breathing and heart rate
Group A strep- inflammatory- heart, joints, brain, spinal cord, skin- longterm antibiotics- antiinflammatory
Necrosis- blood supply interrupted-> ischemia- enzymes from dying tissue further destroy surrounding tissue- surgery, antibiotic,
undulant fever- gram neg aerobic coccobacilli- flulike- can spread person to person if breastfeeding
rabbit fever- francisella tularensis- gram neg bacillus- blood & lymph, no person 2 person, skin abrasion, can lead to sepsis
Cat scratch disease
Bartonela henselae- aerobic, gram neg rod- saliva or scratch, blister at site, lymph node swell, fever, malase, headache, fever
ehrlica chattcensis- lonestar tick-prolonged: renal failure, intravascular cougulopethy, meningo enceph., resp. distress
Borrelia recurrentis- lice and tickstickborne= ornithodross tick= endemicLouseborn=human body louse=epidemic
glandular fever- epstein-barr virus aka human herpes 4- infects blymphocytes- sore throat, fever, fatigue, glands swell, saliva contact- no treatment
CMV- human herpes 5- infects monocytes, neutrophils, T-lymphocytes- body 2 body contact- no treatment
Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF)
Adenaviridiae, filoviridae, bunyvridae, flavivirodae- vascular system, RNA, geographically restricted, contact w/ insect or host,
Organisms that cause Systemic mycoses
histoplasmosis capsulatum, Penicilliosis marneffei, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis
common vector born- plasmodium vivax, falciparum, ovale, malariae- targets erythrocytes- Anopheles mosquitos
jaundiced, enlarged liver, increased resp rate- severe malaria- anemia, blood in urine, edema, shock, cerebral malaria, organ failure
caused by protozoa babesia-ticks- severe= fever, chills, anemia, organ failure- reproduce red blood cells
toxoplaso gondii- cat- uncooked milk, water, fecal-oral, mother 2 fetus, organ transplant