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2 hookworm infections in humans

Ancylostoma duodenate and Necator americanus

4 species of shigella

boydii, dysenteriae, flexneri, sonnei(most common)

20% of bacteria is


Abortive poliomyelitis

asymtomatic- 95%

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

painful chewing


group 1, dsDNA, resp, conj, GI, UTI-type 40 and 41 group f

African trypanosomiasis

sleeping sickness

Animal prion disease

Bovine spongiform ecephalopathy: madcow- chronic wasting disease, scrapie, feline SE, ungulate SE

Anopheles mosquito

carries plasmodium sporozoites



Arboviral encephalitis

biological vector-encephalitis- west nile virus


Ascaris lumbricoides- asymptomatic- most common worldwide worm infection- fruits and veggies- surgery for heavy infestation- treat: albendazole & pyratel panote, and mebanzote

aseptic meningitis

is viral infection


mold- Aspergillus flavus- corn and peanuts- produces aflatoxin- causes hepatitus, immunosupression, and helptocellular carcinoma- abcess in GI tract- systemic

Astroviruses and calciviruses

+ sense, ssRNA group iv- winter animals, and malaise 5 days


caused by protozoa babesia-ticks- severe= fever, chills, anemia, organ failure- reproduce red blood cells

bacillus intoxication

bacillus cereus- gram +, spore forming, aerobic, produce enterotoxins

Bacteria found in large intestine

enteric rods, strep, clostridia and lactobacilli

bacterial intoxication

toxins produced by bacteria

bacterial meningitis

1-2 days incub.- initial symp- nausea, vomit, stiff neck, fever headache-secondary: confusion, sleepiness, light sensitive, coma- less common, more severe.

Bacteria that causes conjunctivitis

strep. pneumoniae, H.influenza, s. aureus, H.spp

Balantidium coli

largest protozoan parasite of humans, pigs and monkeys- fecal/oral transmission- watery stools, anorexia, nausea and pain- tetracycline to treat and metronidazole and todoqunol

Bloodborne Infectious disease

contain blood or fluids

blood-brain barrier

barrier between nervous tissue and blood- help CNS resist infection


C.botulism, gram +, anaerobic, spore forming rod. produces neurotoxin- 7 serotypes A-G-A,B,E,F= human


clostridium botulinum- NEURO TOXIN- Foodborne, infant, wound, and inhalation

Botulism symptoms

blurred vision, dry mouth, dizzy, constipation, respiratory paralysis

brain and spinal cord are covered w?



undulant fever- gram neg aerobic coccobacilli- flulike- can spread person to person if breastfeeding


camplybacter jejuni- C. fetus & C. coli- vibroid or helical- gram neg- motile- microerophilles- raw poultry- raw milk, nonchlorinated water


candida albicans- flora- illness and medications cause change- antibiotic, birth control and steroids, diabetes, HIV and cancer



Cat scratch disease

Bartonela henselae- aerobic, gram neg rod- saliva or scratch, blister at site, lymph node swell, fever, malase, headache, fever

cephalic tetanus

rare, C.tetani in middle ear, head injury- cranial nerves

Cerebral toxoplasmosis

toxoplasmagondii-obligate intracellular- undercooked meat- speech, seizures, confusion, lethargy

Cerebrospinal fluid

circulates brain ventricles, central canal of spinal cord and subarachoid, low level of compliment proteins, bacteria in CSF can multiply w/ little immune response


lipid soluable antibiotic- can enter brain


vibrio cholerae- watery diarrhea, vomit, leg cramps- gram neg- fac anaerobe- vibroid or rod- chloratoxin and enterotoxin


cardiovascular: heart, blood and blood vessels and lymphatic: lymph, lymphatic tissue, vessels and organs- returns excess tissue fluid to cardiovascular system (direct acess)

C. jejuni

leading cause of diarrhea in US

Clostridium perfringers

gram +, spore forming


Brain and spinal cord

CNS invasion

inflammation of brain alters blood-brain barrier and allows drugs in- lymphatic and bloodstream


pinkeye- inflammation of transparent membrane that lines eyelid and eyeball- redness, itchy, roughness, discharge, teary

Cryptococcal meningitis

immunocompromised- head ache, vomit, photophobia, blurry vision, stiff neck, seizure, confusion, coma

Cryptococcoisis neoformans

encapsulated yeast- inhalation or wound


cryptosporidium- fecal-oral route- uncooked meat- water- resistant to chlorine (swimming pools)- most common water born in US.

C. tetani

produces neuro toxin(exotoxin)- gram + rod anaerobic spore- toxins are what spreads it.


CMV- human herpes 5- infects monocytes, neutrophils, T-lymphocytes- body 2 body contact- no treatment

dental plaque


diarrheal type of bacillus intoxication

start 4-16 hours- last 12-24 hours

Dry gangrene

distal limbs, ischemia, artenosclerosis



During bacterial infection of meningitis...

rapid increase in granulocytes and proteins- CSF becomes trubid

during CNS infection (meningitis)...

increase in lymphocytes, monocytes, and proteins.CSF remains clear

E. coli and Kleibsiella normally causes meningitis due to?

head injury, brain or spinal injury, sepsis, or nonsocomial infection


easter equine enceph.-human, horse, bird


ehrlica chattcensis- lonestar tick-prolonged: renal failure, intravascular cougulopethy, meningo enceph., resp. distress

Emetic type of bacillus intoxication

start 30 min -6 hrs-vomiting


inflammation of the brain

endemic (murine) typhus

Ricketsias typhi- rat flea


bacterial and fungal infections in heart


infective and non infective


tissue lining heart chambers

Entameoba histolytica (Amebiosis)

100k annual mortality- water containing cysts or fecal oral route- no animal reservoir- acute amoebic colitis

enteric fever

parathyphoid fever- milder

enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC)

ST toxin, UTI- colonizes small intestine

Enterococcus faecalis


enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)

produces enterotoxins

enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)

dysentry-no toxins- allow adherance to intestinal epithelium and disrupts microvilli

enteropathic E. coli (EPEC)

no toxins- shigells

enterotoxic E. coli(ETEC)

diarrhea- produce toxins- fimbrae

epidemic typhus

Ricketsias prowazetil- human body louse


fungus- claviceps purpures- produces alkaloids- hallucinations, GI upset, gangrene, st anthonys fire (pain in limbs)

Escherichia spp. gastroenteritis

E. Coli- pathogen or normal synthesizes vitamins

Fatal familial insomnia

deteriorate motor functions- inherited or sporatic

Fungal Infections



Necrosis- blood supply interrupted-> ischemia- enzymes from dying tissue further destroy surrounding tissue- surgery, antibiotic,

Gas gangrene

gas in infected tissue


inflammation of stomach and intestine caused by microorganism or ingestion of toxin- stomach flu

gastroenteritis is caused by

contaminated food or water, contact w infected person, unwashed hands, dirty food utensils, and contaminated work space. ingestion of bacterial toxins

Gastrointestional system

2nd most common site of infection

Generalized tetanus

most common, lock jaw, stiff neck, diff. swallowing, calf and pectoral spasms

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinler (GSSS)

defective gene coding for PRNP protein- multicentric amyloid plaques in frontal lobe


Giardialamblia or G. intestinalis- greasy stools, flatuence, cramps, nausea- 1-2 weeks after infection, last 2-6 weeks


bleeding of gums and inflammation


inflammation of gums

Haemophilus influenza

used to be most common cause of bact. meningitis

Haemophilus influenzae meningitis

H. influenza, gram neg, coccobacillus, normal flora of throat-can enter blood stream cause pneumonia, otis media, epiglotidis, meningitis-Resp droplet- IV antibiotics & steroids- 6 serotypes by their capsular polysaccharide.

Helicobacter peptic ulcer

transmitted via food, water, kissing- weightloss, poor appetite, burping, nausea, vomiting- antibiotics, h2 blockers, proton pump, & stomach lining protector drug

Helicobcter pylori

gram neg- microaerophillic, spiral shaped- motile w/ flagella- 30-50% is colonized with it.


A & E- HAV- hygene and is common; HEV- RARE

H. influenza in children

Capsulated strain b= Hib

Hookworm infection

necaturiasis- dogs, cats, and humans- adult attaches to villi of intestine and sucks blood- heavy infection- anemia

How bacterial infections come about

pathogen enters gi tract, adheres and multiplies

How does flora prevent infection?

by competing with pathogens

Human disease

CJD- Degenerative brain disorder, sporadic, hereditary and acquired.


enteric rods and bacteroides

infective endocarditis

microbes= bacteria and fungi

Internal gangrene

white gangrene-bleaching


endemic foretribe in New Guinea-cannibalism


Lacrosse enceph.- rare- children- midwest

Large intestine

is holding tank for bacteria that help in digestion-slow flow rate-high bacteria colonization-bacteroids & bifidobacteria


viseral= fatal form, cutaneus= common form, sore at bite site; diffuse cutaneous= skin lesions; mucocutaneous= skin ulcers that spread and damage nose and mouth tissue


hansens disease-Mycobacteria leprae- gram +, acid fast, pleomorphic, intracellular- aerobic bacillus- waxy coating- skin, PNS, mucous membranes: nose, throat, eyes

listeria in pregnancy

microphages hiding from immune system can cross placenta-early onset:infected during pregnancy- late onset: infect during childbirth- treated w/ antibiotics

Listeria meningitis

listeria monocytogenes- gram + coccobacillus-foodborne illness-fatal-4 days- from blood stream to CNS

Listeria meningitis symptoms

fever, personality changes, uncoordinated movement, seizures, conciousness, tremors


Listeria monocytogenes, gram +, non sporing rod, fac. anaerobic intracellular-can spread to CNS- spread to circulatory-11-70 days-20-30 % mortality

local tetanus

persistant contractions at site of injury- uncommon, mild, subsides

Lyme disease

Borrelia burgordorfi- black legged tick- spirochete- can cross placenta


common vector born- plasmodium vivax, falciparum, ovale, malariae- targets erythrocytes- Anopheles mosquitos

Meninges consist of?

3 membranes- outer, middle, and inner


brain and meninges


inflammation of the meninges- caused my microorganisms or injury- bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoans

Meningococcal meningitis

Neisseria meningitis- gram neg aerobic diplococcus- 5 serotypes: A,B,C,Y,W


microbes enter circulatory though lymphatic drainage


glandular fever- epstein-barr virus aka human herpes 4- infects blymphocytes- sore throat, fever, fatigue, glands swell, saliva contact- no treatment

Most common cause of bacterial meningitis

Strep. pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitis

most common cause of foodborne illness

bacteria and toxins


lepromatous-more virulent- symmetric visions, nodules, plaques, thickened dermis


viral infections in heart muscle= myocarditis


viral or parasite- causes heart failure- chest pain, arrythmias, leg swelling

Neisseria meningitis disease info:

spread resp or person 2 person- incub. 1-3 days- sore throat, headache, drowsiness, fever, stiffneck, photosensitivity- hemorrhagic skin rash= septicemia- can cause amputation

Neonatal tetanus

newborns, umbilical stump- rare in developed countries

non-infective endocarditis

trauma- formation & platelet & fibrin thrombi on valve- red spots and nodes


ssRNA nonenveloped-3 days to 2 weeks- contagious

oral candida


Oral cavity

has most species

Organisms that cause Systemic mycoses

histoplasmosis capsulatum, Penicilliosis marneffei, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis

overpopulation of normal flora and causes cavities

fusobacteria and actinomyces

Paralytic Poliomyelitis

1%- enters CNS- muscle paralysis-> death


tuberculoid- hypopigmented, PNS damage

PEP- rabies treatment

Post exposure propilaxis- 5 doses over 28 days


viral, bacteria or fungi- chest pain, ankle/foot sweliing, dry cough, can't breath lying down, fever


membrane around heart- bacteria, virus and rarely fungi= pericarditis

Periodontal disease can lead to?

decay, toothloss and systemic infection



P. falciparum

jaundiced, enlarged liver, increased resp rate- severe malaria- anemia, blood in urine, edema, shock, cerebral malaria, organ failure

Pheumococcal meningitis

most common- streptococcus pneumoniae- gram +, encapsulated faculative anaerobic diplcoccus- 90 serotypes- vaccine for high risk- immune response against capsular serotype


bacteria to lungs




'seatworm'- enterobius vermicularus-nematode rectum-most common worm infection in US.


Yersinia pestis- bubonic- swelling in lymph nodes, spetic

pneumonicocci can also cause?

otitis media- complication include mustoidis and meningitis


12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, ganglia, sensory receptors


poliovirus- non enveloped ssRNA-

Post polio syndrome

symptoms 30-40 years after polio

Prion disease

TSE- transmibble spongiform encephal.- neurodegenerative disease, long incubation, always fatal, no cure-dementia, personality change, memory and brain funct.

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