Animal prion disease
Bovine spongiform ecephalopathy: madcow- chronic wasting disease, scrapie, feline SE, ungulate SE
Ascaris lumbricoides- asymptomatic- most common worldwide worm infection- fruits and veggies- surgery for heavy infestation- treat: albendazole & pyratel panote, and mebanzote
mold- Aspergillus flavus- corn and peanuts- produces aflatoxin- causes hepatitus, immunosupression, and helptocellular carcinoma- abcess in GI tract- systemic
caused by protozoa babesia-ticks- severe= fever, chills, anemia, organ failure- reproduce red blood cells
1-2 days incub.- initial symp- nausea, vomit, stiff neck, fever headache-secondary: confusion, sleepiness, light sensitive, coma- less common, more severe.
largest protozoan parasite of humans, pigs and monkeys- fecal/oral transmission- watery stools, anorexia, nausea and pain- tetracycline to treat and metronidazole and todoqunol
C.botulism, gram +, anaerobic, spore forming rod. produces neurotoxin- 7 serotypes A-G-A,B,E,F= human
undulant fever- gram neg aerobic coccobacilli- flulike- can spread person to person if breastfeeding
camplybacter jejuni- C. fetus & C. coli- vibroid or helical- gram neg- motile- microerophilles- raw poultry- raw milk, nonchlorinated water
candida albicans- flora- illness and medications cause change- antibiotic, birth control and steroids, diabetes, HIV and cancer
Cat scratch disease
Bartonela henselae- aerobic, gram neg rod- saliva or scratch, blister at site, lymph node swell, fever, malase, headache, fever
toxoplasmagondii-obligate intracellular- undercooked meat- speech, seizures, confusion, lethargy
circulates brain ventricles, central canal of spinal cord and subarachoid, low level of compliment proteins, bacteria in CSF can multiply w/ little immune response
vibrio cholerae- watery diarrhea, vomit, leg cramps- gram neg- fac anaerobe- vibroid or rod- chloratoxin and enterotoxin
cardiovascular: heart, blood and blood vessels and lymphatic: lymph, lymphatic tissue, vessels and organs- returns excess tissue fluid to cardiovascular system (direct acess)
inflammation of brain alters blood-brain barrier and allows drugs in- lymphatic and bloodstream
pinkeye- inflammation of transparent membrane that lines eyelid and eyeball- redness, itchy, roughness, discharge, teary
immunocompromised- head ache, vomit, photophobia, blurry vision, stiff neck, seizure, confusion, coma
cryptosporidium- fecal-oral route- uncooked meat- water- resistant to chlorine (swimming pools)- most common water born in US.
CMV- human herpes 5- infects monocytes, neutrophils, T-lymphocytes- body 2 body contact- no treatment
During bacterial infection of meningitis...
rapid increase in granulocytes and proteins- CSF becomes trubid
during CNS infection (meningitis)...
increase in lymphocytes, monocytes, and proteins.CSF remains clear
E. coli and Kleibsiella normally causes meningitis due to?
head injury, brain or spinal injury, sepsis, or nonsocomial infection
ehrlica chattcensis- lonestar tick-prolonged: renal failure, intravascular cougulopethy, meningo enceph., resp. distress
Entameoba histolytica (Amebiosis)
100k annual mortality- water containing cysts or fecal oral route- no animal reservoir- acute amoebic colitis
enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)
dysentry-no toxins- allow adherance to intestinal epithelium and disrupts microvilli
fungus- claviceps purpures- produces alkaloids- hallucinations, GI upset, gangrene, st anthonys fire (pain in limbs)
Necrosis- blood supply interrupted-> ischemia- enzymes from dying tissue further destroy surrounding tissue- surgery, antibiotic,
inflammation of stomach and intestine caused by microorganism or ingestion of toxin- stomach flu
gastroenteritis is caused by
contaminated food or water, contact w infected person, unwashed hands, dirty food utensils, and contaminated work space. ingestion of bacterial toxins
defective gene coding for PRNP protein- multicentric amyloid plaques in frontal lobe
Giardialamblia or G. intestinalis- greasy stools, flatuence, cramps, nausea- 1-2 weeks after infection, last 2-6 weeks
Haemophilus influenzae meningitis
H. influenza, gram neg, coccobacillus, normal flora of throat-can enter blood stream cause pneumonia, otis media, epiglotidis, meningitis-Resp droplet- IV antibiotics & steroids- 6 serotypes by their capsular polysaccharide.
Helicobacter peptic ulcer
transmitted via food, water, kissing- weightloss, poor appetite, burping, nausea, vomiting- antibiotics, h2 blockers, proton pump, & stomach lining protector drug
gram neg- microaerophillic, spiral shaped- motile w/ flagella- 30-50% is colonized with it.
necaturiasis- dogs, cats, and humans- adult attaches to villi of intestine and sucks blood- heavy infection- anemia
is holding tank for bacteria that help in digestion-slow flow rate-high bacteria colonization-bacteroids & bifidobacteria
viseral= fatal form, cutaneus= common form, sore at bite site; diffuse cutaneous= skin lesions; mucocutaneous= skin ulcers that spread and damage nose and mouth tissue
hansens disease-Mycobacteria leprae- gram +, acid fast, pleomorphic, intracellular- aerobic bacillus- waxy coating- skin, PNS, mucous membranes: nose, throat, eyes
listeria in pregnancy
microphages hiding from immune system can cross placenta-early onset:infected during pregnancy- late onset: infect during childbirth- treated w/ antibiotics
listeria monocytogenes- gram + coccobacillus-foodborne illness-fatal-4 days- from blood stream to CNS
Listeria meningitis symptoms
fever, personality changes, uncoordinated movement, seizures, conciousness, tremors
Listeria monocytogenes, gram +, non sporing rod, fac. anaerobic intracellular-can spread to CNS- spread to circulatory-11-70 days-20-30 % mortality
common vector born- plasmodium vivax, falciparum, ovale, malariae- targets erythrocytes- Anopheles mosquitos
inflammation of the meninges- caused my microorganisms or injury- bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoans
glandular fever- epstein-barr virus aka human herpes 4- infects blymphocytes- sore throat, fever, fatigue, glands swell, saliva contact- no treatment
Neisseria meningitis disease info:
spread resp or person 2 person- incub. 1-3 days- sore throat, headache, drowsiness, fever, stiffneck, photosensitivity- hemorrhagic skin rash= septicemia- can cause amputation
trauma- formation & platelet & fibrin thrombi on valve- red spots and nodes
Organisms that cause Systemic mycoses
histoplasmosis capsulatum, Penicilliosis marneffei, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis
viral, bacteria or fungi- chest pain, ankle/foot sweliing, dry cough, can't breath lying down, fever
jaundiced, enlarged liver, increased resp rate- severe malaria- anemia, blood in urine, edema, shock, cerebral malaria, organ failure
most common- streptococcus pneumoniae- gram +, encapsulated faculative anaerobic diplcoccus- 90 serotypes- vaccine for high risk- immune response against capsular serotype
TSE- transmibble spongiform encephal.- neurodegenerative disease, long incubation, always fatal, no cure-dementia, personality change, memory and brain funct.
zoonotic- ssRNA, bullet shaped-causes encephalitis- saliva- fatigue, muscle aches, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, headache, nausea, vomiting and abd pain.
Borrelia recurrentis- lice and tickstickborne= ornithodross tick= endemicLouseborn=human body louse=epidemic
Group A strep- inflammatory- heart, joints, brain, spinal cord, skin- longterm antibiotics- antiinflammatory
risk factors for periodontal disease
smoking, genetic predispotion, pregnancy, puberty, stress, medication, diabetes, poor nutrition
salmonella- enterobacteriacae family- faculative anerobe, rod, gram-neg, non sporing-typhoid fever, food born illness- diarrhea, fever, cramps- contaminated or uncooked food.5-7 days
from hypotension- loss of apetite, fever, chills, lethargic, accelerated breathing and heart rate
bacillialy dysentry- in humans and monkeys- gram neg, non sporing, rod shaped- produces shiga toxin- destroys tissue- dysentry- febrile sezures
bacteria get washed out by pancreatic juice and bile- gram + lactobacilli- metabolize compunds that humans cannot.
in flora of nose, staph aureus (no spores), heat resistant, high osmotic resistance, high salt concentration
Symptoms of botulism
muscle weakness, dry mouth, diff swallowing, blurred vision, slurred speech, vomit and diarrhea, drooping eyelids
caused by salmonella enterrica-serotype typhi-rod, gram neg, flagella-contaminated food or water-high fever 103-104, headache, nausea, pain, diarrhea, cough, constipation.
toxoplaso gondii- cat- uncooked milk, water, fecal-oral, mother 2 fetus, organ transplant
Transmission of botulism
Toxin enters body, toxin binds to nerve endings @ neuromuscluar junction- stops release ACH, inhibits- fOODBORNE, infant, wound, inhalation
Treatment of bacterial meningitis
penacillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, lefotaxime, vanc and ceftriaxone
rabbit fever- francisella tularensis- gram neg bacillus- blood & lymph, no person 2 person, skin abrasion, can lead to sepsis
Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF)
Adenaviridiae, filoviridae, bunyvridae, flavivirodae- vascular system, RNA, geographically restricted, contact w/ insect or host,
aseptic meningitis- mosquitos- no treatment, runs course-bulging of fontanel in infants