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Latin American Revolutions Review
Terms in this set (30)
This group was mad up of wealthy whites who owned plantations and many slaves. Since their wealth and position rested entirely on the slave economy they were united in support of slavery. Most of the planters leaned strongly toward independence for Saint-Domingue along the same lines as the U.S., that is, a slave nation governed by white males.
This group was made up the second group of whites who were less powerful than the planters. They were artisans, shop-keepers, merchants, teachers and various middle and underclass whites. They often had a few slaves, but were not wealthy like the planters. However, they were committed to slavery and were especially anti-black, seeing free persons of color as serious economic and social competitors.
Gens de Couleur
This group included free people of color who were often quite wealthy. The free persons of color could own plantations and owned a large portion of the slaves. Free people of color were usually strongly pro-slavery. While the whites treated them badly and scorned their color, they nonetheless strove to imitate everything white, seeing this a way of separating themselves from the status of the slaves whom they despised.
This group made up around 90% of the population in Haiti and often worked in incredibly harsh conditions on sugar and coffee plantations. The average life span on the island was just 3 years for this population
There was a large group of run-away slaves who retreated deep into the mountains of Saint-Domingue. They lived in small villages where they did subsistence farming.... They were bitterly anti-slavery, but alone, were not willing to fight the fight for freedom.
The Spaniards who ruled New Spain governed a large country, inhabited mostly by Native Americans. In 1650, only one out of every 100 people had been born in Spain. Yet, despite their small number, they owned much of the land and held most of the wealth.
The white descendants of Spaniards born in the Americas, formed this elite group. In 1650, they accounted for 10 percent of the population of New Spain. They held government posts, but did not fill the top positions. They also owned businesses, and often were landowners and professionals
This group was made up of children of white Spaniards and indians, who were called usually did not have the privileges or the wealth of their fathers. Rather, they worked as laborers in mines, on haciendas, and in city industries. Some were also craftspeople, soldiers, and priests.
This group was by far the largest group in New Spain. Because the peninsulares and criollos had seized Indian lands for their own use, most communities were left with only tiny plots on which to grow their corn.
Black Slaves (New Spain)
This group held the lowest position in society. Most had been brought from Africa and then sold to peninsulares and criollos to work on their haciendas. They made up just over two percent of the population in 1650.
This man was a former slave, a brilliant military commander and a leader in the Haitian revolution. He assumed political control of the country and helped to create the Constitution of 1801 that outlawed slavery and made him dictator for life. He was removed from power by Napoleon's government and died in France.
This French leader gave the orders to his military to reinvade and Haiti and attempt to re-establish slavery. He wanted to use the money from the Haiti to fund his military efforts in other places.
The French Army General who lead the effort to reconquer Haiti. Used many brutal tactics including the first gas chamber but was ultimately unsuccessful in his efforts
Haitian military leader who successfully defeated the French and lead the country to becoming the first fully independent, black republic in the world
Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. Known as the "liberator" The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, and came from a wealthy, educated background, he led military forces in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia., was made president of Gran Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and helped liberate (1823-1834) Peru and Bolivia. Became a dictator and failed in his dreams to unite all of South America; died with a broken heart.
Jose de San Martin
South American general, born in Argentina and rose up through the millitary: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru. Worked with Bolivar for independence in South America. Ultimately gave his troops to Bolivar and left South America.
Bolivar wanted to unit the Spanish colonies in South America into a single nation that would share resources and a common government to avoid conflict and promote wealth.
Causes of the Haitian Revolution
-Widespread slavery and a harsh plantation economy growing coffee and sugar
-Enlightenment ideas of rights and ideas from the French Revolution
-Social Inequality and strict class system based on race
Causes of Latin American Revolutions
-Desire for independence from Spain (trade)
-Napoleon conquered Spain, put brother on throne, seen as illegitimate ruler in New Spain
-Social Inequality and strict class system based on race
-Examples from other revolutions (United States, France, Haiti)
Legal Equality for Gens de Couleur-1791
France's revolutionary government granted legal equality to free people of color. Whites responded by refusing to follow the law and attacking free people of color. Contributed to chaos and uncertainty in Haiti
Slave Revolt August 1791
After a religious ceremony, slaves planned a coordinated rebellion and attacked their masters in order to gain their freedom. Was an important first step in the fight to end slavery and create an independent nation
France Abolishes Slavery in Haiti 1794
Foreign powers (Spain, Britain) have been attacking Haiti. France frees the slaves to encourage the former to join French troops in fighting other foreign powers. This strategy works and Toussaint L'Overture fights successfully alongside the French.
Constitution of 1801
Toussaint L'Overture establishes a constitution for Haiti as a self-governing nation. The constitution abolishes slavery, guarantees equal rights and make L'Overture leader for life.
War of Independence 1802-3.
Napoleon takes power in France and wants to get money from Haiti to fund his war efforts in Europe. He sends Leclerc to reconquer Haiti and reintroduce slavery. This sparks a brutal war in which Haitians fight for their freedom. Jean-Jacques Dessalines led Haitians to victory and the French left the island.
Haitian Republic Established 1804
Haiti was now a free and independent country. It was the world's first black led Republic and the 2nd nation to become independent in the Americas after the United States.
Venezuela Declares Independence 1810
First nation to declare independence from Spain. Begins the process of close to a decade of fighting with Spanish troops.
The March through the Andes
Bolivar lead 2000 troops over many obstacles to Columbia and surprised Spanish troops, securing a major victory and ultimately won independence for Colombia
Gran Colombia Estabished
Bolivar created the united country of independent Latin American nations with a common constitution. Bolivar was made president for life to avoid the complications of democracy.
1824-Bolivar takes command of San Martin's troops
with their united armies defeated the Spanish and their supporters in Peru and Bolivia. Ended Spanish control in Latin America
1830-End of Gran Colombia
Venezuela and Ecuador split off from Gran Colombia. Bolivar was intensely discouraged-he retired from government and died soon after.
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