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Study Guide for Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds Test
Terms in this set (28)
The attraction between oppositely charged ions.
A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
An attraction between positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it.
A negatively charged ion.
A positive charged ion.
The force of attraction that holds two atoms together.
A solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in regular, repeating patterns.
A neutral group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
What does an elements atomic number represent?
An element atomic number represents the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom.
In an atom how are the number of protons and number of electrons related?
It helps determine one element from the other. Neutral atoms contain and equal number of both protons and elections, and the number of protons determines a chemical's atomic number.
The atomic number for Nitrogen is 7. How many electrons are in a nitrogen atom?
Nitrogen has 7 electrons, because it is neutral.
What is the importance of valence electrons in chemical bonding?
Atoms bond so that they can have 8 valence electrons, and when they do, valence electrons are transferred and shared between one another. They are either lost, shared, or gained.
Why do the properties of elements change in a regular way across the periodic table?
Because valence electrons are added to the right.
Explain the reactivity of noble gases in terms of valence electrons. Explain the reactivity of Halogens and Alkali metals in relation to the valence electrons.
All noble gases (except for helium which has two but still is very stable) have eight valence electrons. They have a full outer shell of valence electrons, there is no room for electrons to be lost or gained or shared. This means that they are very stable and will very rarely react.
Halogens have 7 valence electrons they want to gain one electron from other atoms in order to have a complete outer shell.
Alkali metals have 1 valence electron which is easily lost. Because there are no other electrons in the shell to anchor it to the atom. The alkali metal, after losing the electron, becomes a positive ion.
The chemical properties of an atom are determined by
its valence electron shell
An atom that loses a valence electron becomes a __________ ion. An atom that gains a valence electron becomes a ____________ ion
Ions form when
valence electrons are lost or gained.
The formula for sodium sulfide is NA2S Explain what this formula means.
It means two sodium atoms and one sulfur atom.
Write the formula for calcium chloride. Explain how you determined the formula
I determined this formula because calcium forms an ion with a positive 2 charge and chlorine forms and ion with a negative 1 charge.
Almost all ionic compounds are ______ at room temperature.
What are some properties of ionic compounds?
They conduct electricity (somewhat)
Possess high melting points (and boiling points)
They are hard, but brittle
What is a covalent bond? How are the atoms in the covalent bond held together?
A covalent bond is a bond between two or more non-metals where electrons are shared between the atoms. They are held together by sharing electrons.
What properties do covalent bonds share?
They share lower melting and boiling points, and lower electrical conductivity. (not conductive)
What types bonds are formed when atoms share electrons unequally?
A polar bond and non-polar bond
Would carbon dioxide or water have higher boiling point. Explain.
Water would have the high boiling point because it is polar and needs more energy to separate the bond.
Some atoms have slightly positive charges and some have slightly negative charges. Why?
Because some electrons spend longer time around larger atoms then around the smaller atoms causing the charge of the item to change slightly.
Describe the properties of a metallic bond.
Strength, ductility, thermal, conductivity, luster.
Explain why metals are good conductors of electric current.
they are malleable, they are ductile, and are good thermal conductors.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
American Government Chapter 5
World History-WCA-Chapter 5
chemistry chapter 4
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