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43 terms

Rivers

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Water Cycle
An illustration that water is throughout every earth system
River System
A river and all of it's tributaries
Drainage Basin
All of the land where rain fall will run off into a river system
Divide
an imaginary line between two drainage basins
Continental Divide
Splits country in two
Drainage Pattern
Shape the rivers make
Dendritic
Drainage pattern. Like a tree, with progressively bigger rivers, all ending into one large river at the bottom.
Radial
Drainage pattern. All rivers moving out from one central spot
Rectangular
Drainage pattern. Rivers flowing into right angles
Trellis
Drainage pattern. Right angles into major spot
Bed Load
Sediments that are moved along the bottom (bed) of a river. Biggest material.
Modes of Transportation
Ways sediments are moved throughout a river.
Saltation
Skipping. A combination of bed load and suspended load.
Disolved Load
Particles and sediments disolved into the water.
Erosion
Removal of sediment. The faster the river moves the more erosion will take place.
Deposition
When sediment is dropped by a river. When a river slows down, material can no longer be carried and get deposited on the river bed.
Young Rivers
Straight, high velocities, V shaped valley, downcutting
Potholes
Holes carved into rock at the base of river with a whirlpool action.
Old Rivers
curves and meanders, cutoffs, point bars, cut banks, low gradient
Middle Aged Rivers
Meanders formed, deposition, point bars
Levees
Barriers composed of sediments made on either side of a river due to flooding.
Base Level
The elevation to which a river has the ability to erode its bed down to, everywhere along its course, Lowest elevation to which the stream can erode downward, for many streams, the water surface level of the body of water into which they flow
Competence
a measure that describes the maximum size of the particles a stream can carry
Delta
a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
Discharge
The volume of water a river transports over a given amount of time.
Sorting
Process of selection and separation of sediment grains according to their grain size (or grain shape or specific gravity).
Flash Flood
a sudden local flood of great volume and short duration
Flood
the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land
Flood Plain
a low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding
Gradient
the slope of a river over a certain distance
headward erosion
the process through which land is worn away at the head of streams or gullies
meander scar
The remnants of an old meandering river (without water)
Load
the amount of sediment that a river or stream carries
Meanders
wide and deep, loop-like bend in the course of a river
Oxbow Lake
a crescent-shaped lake (often temporary) that is formed when a meander of a river is cut off from the main channel
Cut Bank
downstream and outside side of the meander, flows somewhat faster
Stream Piracy
The process by which one stream captures the headwaters of another stream
Suspension
a mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a river
Tributary
a branched river that flows into the main streaming river
Watershed
a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems
Point Bar
deposit of sediment build up by a river on the inside bend of a meander
Capacity
The total amount of sediment a river can hold.
Fernando De Soto
First European to see the Mississippi River