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THEO 3: test 4
Terms in this set (81)
when the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon condemned the ________ heresy, which denied ________'s role as the ________ of God, some Eastern Churches who followed the teaching began to separate from the Western Church
Nestorian; Mary, Mother
the Council of Chalcedon also judged that the See of ________ should be ranked after Rome, because the bishops viewed it as "the New Rome"
the two Churches also differed in their views of the relationship between the Church and the state: the ________ Church accepted the emperor's dominance over it with the emperor seen as the "Vicar of Christ" (a title that in the Roman Church is reserved for the Pope)
what is the title of the Eastern Church for a spiritual father, given to the highest rankings of Bishops?
what was a controversy during the 700s that raged in the Eastern Church over the use of icons in liturgy?
in 726 the Byzantine emperor ________ ____ condemned the veneration of sacred images, believing this was a form of idolatry; he ordered the destruction of all icons, an act known as ________
Leo III, iconoclasm
another dispute between the two Churches arose in the ninth century when Emperor Photius condemned the ________ Church's inclusion of the word ________ in the Nicene Creed, accusing the Church of heresy
Western (Latin), filioque
filioque meaning "and ________ ____ ________"
from the Son
in ________ the decisive split between the Eastern and Latin Churches occurred: the argument over the ________'s authority
in 1204, following the Byzantine emperor's call for aid from the Western Church when his city was besieged by Muslims, Crusaders sent to assist ________ sacked / looted the city & its churches and drove out its citizens; they proclaimed the Western emperor ________ and installed a ________ bishop so that any hope for unity dissipated
Constantinople, king, Latin
future attempts at reconciliation failed; in 1453 Constantinople fell to the ________—bringing an end to the Roman Empire in the East—and attempts at healing stalled for centuries
hope for reconciliation was revived in 1976 when Pope Paul VI & Patriarch Athenagorus I lifted the ________ ________ of 1054; ecumenical efforts continued, keeping alive the hope for eventual unity between the Catholic & Orthodox Churches
following the Eastern Schism, the Christian world was divided into the Roman Church of the ________ and the Orthodox (or Greek) Church of the ________
in 1009 the Turks had besieged ________, and their caliph, or leader, had ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher; within just a few years, countless churches had been pillaged and destroyed, often with mosques built in their place
a campaign of subjugation began against ________ in Jerusalem so that their movement was restricted, and they were forced to wear distinctive clothing to identify them as "infidels"; pilgrimage routes to Jerusalem were now blocked and the pilgrims were prevented from visiting the Holy City
so with the Pope's blessing, the ________ Crusade set off in 1096 to help the Byzantine Church and to take back Jerusalem
the knights who returned from the First Crusade were honored as ________ of the faith, being granted indulgences and receiving tangible rewards too, such as loot or territory
what are the means by which the Church takes away the punishment that a person would receive in Purgatory?
in the ________ crusade, the Crusaders sailed to ________, sieging the city, breaking the city walls, and spilling into the streets; it was intended to be a simple military coup but turned into an attack on the citizens and a pillaging frenzy where the crusaders broke into and vandalized churches, stealing or destroying precious icons, relics, & adornments until the most vibrant Christian city in the world was left in ruins
the Crusades did, however, bring about some gains for the ________ since crusaders brought back to Europe many goods & inventions, including works of Greek philosophers that influenced the scholastics of the 12th & 13th centuries (including Thomas Aquinas), and they learned of advances in astronomy, mathematics, and science through contact with Muslim scholars
two kings (Edward I of England and Philip II of France) sought to assert authority over the Church by ________ the clergy; the Pope issued a bull forbidding their act, threatening excommunication for those doing such, so King Philip sent troops to Italy to arrest the Pope but Pope was eventually rescued (but died a month later)
Pope ________ was a weak pope who was dominated by the French king; he created ten cardinals in 1305 (nine of them were French), so in 1309 he moved the Church's headquarters from Rome to ________, in the South of France where the papal court was a place of sumptuous wealth & material comforts
the Avignon Papacy dragged on for more than ________ years; the seventh Avignon Pope, Pope ________ _____, had hopes of returning to Rome
70, Gregory XI
who was one of the great medieval mystics that is credited with persuading Avignon Pope Gregory XI to follow through on moving the headquarters back to Rome? she had a deep respect for the papacy & wanted the men occupying the office to be worthy of the calling; not long after her visit to Avignon, Pope Gregory XI returned the papal court to Rome
Catherine of Siena
the ________ ________ arrived in Europe in 1347 by way of ________; at the time, people had no idea what caused the disease, but now we know that the bacteria of the plague was brought to Italy by merchant ships, likely being spread by fleas from shipboard rats
Black Death, Sicily
for the Church, the Black Death brought a drastic loss of ________, many having succumbed to the disease, which they likely acquired while tending to the sick, so the Church scrambled to replace them, resulting at times in the ordination of men ________ for the calling
what was the split within the Church that last from 1378 to 1417, when there were 2 or 3 claimants to the papacy at once?
Great Western Schism (Papal Schism)
with the Great Western Schism as a result, great confusion for faithful ________ and for political maneuvering as ________ took sides along political lines came about
a Church council was called to resolve the situation and declare the rightful Pope between Italian Urban VI or Frenchman Clement VII; instead it deposed both popes and named a 3rd Pope ________ ____, who died on his way to Rome
since Alexander V died on his way to Rome, another election appointed of ________ ____, BUT there were still 3 popes
for the Church at the time, the Great Western Schism had a devastating effect: the ________ lost its dignity & authority and came to be viewed with cynicism; it also lost influence as a legitimate measure to correct serious sins since excommunication was a penalty leveled freely & recklessly by popes & antipopes against their foes
the ________ movement, which gave Church councils — at times convened by secular rulers — supremacy over popes, further depleted the power of the papacy
in 909 a Benedictine monastery was founded at ________, where the return to the rule & spirit of Saint Benedict was stressed — with emphasis on true Christian discipleship, poverty & simplicity, and freedom from lay influence
in addition to reform of the Benedictine monasteries, new monastic orders were also established in the 11th century: the ________ and the ________ who both relied on the Rule of Saint Benedict (although the rule was drastically modified and an even greater emphasis was placed on sacrifice & poverty)
the ________ emphasized a life of austerity, in which monks lived a hermitic life, meeting in community only on feast days
the ________ (founded in 1098 at Citeaux, in France) also stressed solitude, though not to the same degree as the Carthusians, along with manual labor and poverty
Saint ________ was a Cistercian monk and prominent theologian who found a monastery and attracted a rapidly growing number of followers
with their focus on ________ & ________, Cistercian abbeys became leaders in technological knowledge — about agricultural techniques, metal working, and textiles, for example — and were an important contributor to France's ________ throughout the medieval period
work, discipline; economy
new orders were emerging with a focus on reforms beyond the monastic walls: the ________ ("beggar") orders
what are the mendicant orders?
Order of Preachers, Order of Friars Minor
who made up the Order of Preachers?
who made up the Order of Friars Minor?
the mendicants involved themselves in the world, traveling from town to town preaching, teaching, and serving the poor while relying on ________ for their basic needs
who founded the mendicant order for the Franciscans?
Francis of Assisi
the Franciscan Friars were not connected to a particular ________, for they were the first mendicant order, begging for their sustenance
a central theme of ________ spirituality was the imitation of Christ and of his poverty
who founded the mendicant order of the Dominicans after he envisioned a religious order dedicated to combating the heresies through preaching and wanted his order to live the monastic ideals outside of the confines of a monastery, traveling through the countryside to teach and preach against the heresies?
Dominic de Guzman
Dominic de Guzman was inspired after his encounter with the ________, a heretical sect active in France in the 11th and 12th centuries
eventually, the Dominicans, or ________ ________ (so called because of their habit: a white robe covered with a black cloak), lived in communal houses
the Dominicans were among the greatest ________ of the period, with Saint Thomas Aquinas their most famous son
the grand cathedrals and abbey churches built in the 11th through 14th centuries were of what two distinct styles?
which church style had massive pillars with rounded arches holding up stone roofs to replace the flammable wood-beamed churches and resembled fortresses with thick walls and small windows?
which church style is most notable for its height (amplified by their tall spires that reached to the heavens, and their graceful airiness) and had high thin walls, rib-vaulted ceilings, concrete arches that held up walls from the outside, and an abundant use of stain glass situated at the west end of the nave?
what is the main body of a church or a cathedral, where the assembly gathers?
what is the part of a cathedral that contains the high water?
what is the official public, daily prayer of the Catholic Church that provides standard prayers, Scripture readings, and reflections at regular hours throughout the day and is also known as the Liturgy of the Hours?
the universities grew out of the ________ ________ as teachers and students began to group together to study the liberal arts (astronomy, music, grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, & geometry) as well as the sciences (theology, law, and medicine)
students (only ________) could enter the university at age fourteen
the medieval universities established a method of learning known as ________, which is the method of thinking, teaching, and writing devised in (and a characteristic of) the medieval universities of Europe from about 1100 to 1500 that is closely identified with the knowledge of God
among all the scholastics, none has left a mark as lasting as ________ ________, a Dominican friar from Italy
in the Middle Ages, a dualistic sect that saw all of the created world, including the human body, as evil, the ________, posed a new threat to the Church; they were also antisacerdotal (opposed to the priesthood) and rejected the dogma of the Eucharist
in the trials against heretics that formed the Medieval Inquisition, Dominican inquisitor ________ ________ defended the church
Pope ________ ____ (one of the most effective and powerful popes in the Church's history) convened the Fourth Lateran Council which was one of the most important in the Church's history — attended by more than twelve hundred bishops & leading churchmen and established seventy canons (Church laws)
all of these were established at the Fourth Lateran Council:
- the enforcement of ________ ________ and the elimination of simony
- the ________ ____ ________: that sins revealed in the Sacrament of Penance & Reconciliation could not be revealed by the confessor
- a call for annual ________ and the ________ Duty where the Eucharist is received
- recognizing the number of Sacraments instituted by Christ as ________
- defining ________ as the "Real Presence" of Christ: in the Eucharist, the transformation of the substance of bread & wine into the Body & Blood of Jesus Christ
clerical celibacy; seal of confession; confession, Easter; seven; transubstantiation
although at the Consecration during the Liturgy the bread & wine retain their physical form, what is the true change in substance into the Body & Blood of Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit referred to as?
the doctrine of transubstantiation was further clarified at the Council of ________ in the sixteenth century
belief in the Real Presence of Christ in the ________ separates Catholics from most other Protestant Christians
during the High Middle Ages, what were two key devotions that emerged?
Feast of Corpus Christi, Eucharistic Adoration
what does the Feast of Corpus Christi celebrate?
the Body of Christ (consecrated in the Mass)
through the papal bull of ________ ____, the Feast of Corpus Christi become a feast day of the entire Church
________ ________ is typically performed with the Blessed Sacrament in exposition, displayed in a monstrance; on Holy Thursday the Eucharist is not exposed for adoration but is placed on the altar in a ciborium
who is credited with establishing the practice of Eucharistic Adoration in Italy?
Saint Francis (of Assisi)
where is the Blessed Sacrament displayed in exposition during the Eucharistic Adoration?
the practice of displaying and praying before the exposed Blessed Sacrament soon spread and became an established ________ in the medieval Church that continues today
the practice of capturing and punishing heretics against the Christian faith began in the 4th century, with Emperor ________; during that time the pursuit of heretics was the purview of civil authorities, and the penalties could include fines, imprisonment, corporal punishment (such as flogging) or even execution
the inquisitors — organized into a tribunal (a panel of three) — were both ________ and ________: when they arrived in a town, they first set out to determine whether a heresy had occurred, and, if so, then the accused was given a list of charges, witnesses were summoned, and a trial followed that was typically conducted in secret
although the ________ Inquisition is often remembered as a vicious hunt for anyone in opposition to Catholic orthodoxy, the facts reflect a different reality
most sentences during the Medieval Inquisition were "________" penances, such as fasting, making pilgrimages, attending Mass more frequently, or wearing distinctive clothing
the ________ Inquisition began in the 15th century, about 2 centuries after the other Inquisition had almost ended, under the authority of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, who wanted to convert everyone to Catholicism
in the Spanish Inquisition, the Pope demanded that the accused be allowed to appeal to Rome & to have legal counsel with personal enemies of the accused allowed to be disqualified as witnesses, but King Ferdinand rejected these demands, and the Pope lost all control over the ________ ________
the Spanish Inquisition was officially abolished in ________
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