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171 terms

lifespand chapter 10,11,13

test answers
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whitney, who is 25
Who is best classified as being in the state of emerging adulthood?
emerging adulthood
Kayla considers herself more than an adolescent but not yet fully an aduly. This would qualify her as being in the state known as
incolce the acquisistion of new responsibilities
Role transitions always
transition
the criteria for reaching adulthood is referred to as a role
procreate
As a female growing up in a develpoing nation, fifi's transition to adulthood is most likey to be based on her ability to
ritual
a rite of passage is best classified as a
intimacy versus isolation
Erikson would argue that 25-year-old Rollie is currently experiencing a crisis involving
noncareer-oriented women
Erikson's theory is least applicable in explaining the timing of identity and intimacy formation in
I am a lot less coordinated than I use to be
which statement by 25 year old flossie, who is typical for a person of her age, is most likely false?
AIDS
If you were asked to list the most common causes of death in young adults (ages 25-44) in the United States, you should avoid saying
tamarick, and african american male
Based on statistics, which of these 30-year-old adults is most likely to die within a year?
440,000
Smoking represents a major medical problem in the United States with about _____ people each year dying from smoking-related disorders.
nonsmokers are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than from lung cancer
Which statement concerning secondhand smoke is true?
show significant improvements in their health
People who quit smoking after smoking for a long time
Light drinkers have the greatest benefits.
How is the consumption of alcohol related to the promotion of health?
binge drinking.
Jimmy goes to a party with his college buddies and has six beers in a row. Jimmy's behavior would be best classified as
good grades
Jari is a frequent binge drinker. Which is he less likely to experience than his non-binge drinking peers?
cause the body to crave alcohol.
At a chemical level, alcohol addiction results in chemical changes that
metabolism.
Bernice is very interested in studying how the energy needs of the human body change through the lifespan. In other words, Bernice is interested in studying
lower metabolic rate
Sixty-year-old Norbert says, "When I was a teenager I could eat five big meals a day and still feel hungry. Now a couple of snacks can get me through the day." What best accounts for this age-related change?
cause fatty deposits that can lead to blocked arteries.
Low-density lipoproteins
High-density lipoproteins
_____ help keep your arteries clear.
LDL level under 160 mg/dL and HDL level over 50 mg/dL
Which combination would be a sign of good health?
an index related to total body fat
What is BMI
24
An individual with a BMI of _____ or less is considered healthy.
inner city neighborhoods
In the United States, the poorest health conditions are found in those living in
are more likely to experience the impact of stress-related racism
A key reason that African Americans are generally less healthy than European Americans is that African American
hypertension.
Antoni continually suppresses his anger. This reaction is most likely to lead to
with age, some aspects of intelligence improve while others may decline
Intellectual multidirectionality is based on the premise tha
plasticity.
The fact that a specific aspect of intelligence can be modified at any time during the lifespan exemplifies that concept of
plasticity.
After taking several college courses, Chuck's short-term memory ability increased. This exemplifies the concept of
fluid intelligence
Which is not a "primary mental ability?"
sequential
Schaie's influential study on intellectual change over time utilizes the _____ research design he invented
allow for more flexible and adaptive thinking
Fluid intelligence consist of abilities that
acquired across one's life.
Crystallized intelligence is
crystallized intelligence.
Webster loves playing any game in which he can show off the large vocabulary that he has acquired. A competent psychologist would suggest that this skill provides the best example of
crystallized intelligence
Someone who knows the answers to all the questions on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire would be exhibiting
consider situational circumstances
Postformal adult thinkers differ from adolescent formal operational thinkers in that the adults are more likely to
postformal thought
Which constitutes the highest level of thinking in adulthood?
contradiction as norma
In order to qualify as a "postformal thinker," you must be able to accept
initial
Jason believes that gun control is absolutely wrong, and that the right to possess guns is an absolute right. Jason would probably be closest to the _____ stage of reflective judgment.
It tends to increase with age.
What statement regarding optimal level of development is true?
integrate emotion and logic in decisions making
Mature thinkers tend to
help us process information in social situations.
Stereotypes
are triggered unconsciously
Implicit stereotypes always
a sense of fear linked to a negative stereotype about a group to which an individual belongs
A stereotype threat involves
unified sense of one's past, present, and future
A life-span construct represents a
a scenario.
Omar is thinking about a time to come when he will be married and have a family. This is an example of
social clock
Darren wants to be out of graduate school by age 25, be married by age 30, and be retired by age 50. This is an example of a
A scenario is a path and a social clock is the timetable.
How is a "scenario" related to a "social clock?
the emotions conveyed in their life story
According to McAdams, a person's developing personality is best reflected by
a life-long love
Which of the following would best reflect a life story goal of communion?
fashioned and refashioned and is influenced by culture.
According to McAdams, a person's life story is
projecting yourself into the future
Which requires the creation of possible selves?
a high
Merlin believes that he can get what he wants if he tries hard enough. This indicates that he has _____ sense of personal control.
primary control.
Jim believes that he can improve his financial situation by getting a second job. Jim is exercising
"When my job gets tough I will succeed with effort.
Which statement best exemplifies the concept of secondary control?
less emotionally intense and less sexual
Friendship relationships differ from love relationships in that they are
deterioration
Siegfried and Roy have been friends for many years. In the past few months, however, they seem to have less in common, and Roy has been thinking more about hanging out with a potential new friend. Siegfried and Roy appear to be in the _____ stage of friendship development.
young adulthood.
People tend to have the most acquaintances/friends during
sociability
The fact that Bert's friend Ernie keeps him amused by telling funny stories best illustrates that _____ dimension of friendship
control the level of intimacy in the relationship
A relative strength of online friendships involves the ability of the user to
Helen, who is 45
Which person is least likely to have a strong friendship with her brother?
"friendly" competition
Men's friendship activities most often involve
vulnerability
The text authors suggest that the strong intimate sharing component, which characterizes female friendships but not male friendships, is due to females having more comfort with their
overperceiving Gredel's level of sexual interest in him.
Hansel (a male) and Gredel (a female) are best friends. If their cross-gender friendship is typical of most, Hansel's biggest misperception concerning Gredel would likely be
sociability
Which is not one of the three components of love, according to Sternberg?
passion.
Juliet can feel it! She wants Romeo physically, and she wants him badly! Juliet is most likely experiencing
intimacy
When discussing his new girlfriend, Mickey says, "I can tell her everything about myself." Mickey clearly feels _____ toward his girlfriend
commitment.
The phrase, "till death do you part," that is often said during marriage services offers a good example of
infatuation.
While Victor and Victoria have very strong sexual feelings for each other, they have little interest in intimacy or commitment. This type of relationship is best described as
commitment
Toni and Tim have just gotten married. Which component of love is most likely to be stronger 20 years from now than it is today?
similarity
The assortative mating theory proposes that initial mate selection is based primarily on
stimulus
When Cleo says, "Perhaps Anthony and I could be a couple because we both come from the same upper-class type of families," she appears to be in Murstein's _____ stage of couple formation.
"Our gender roles are well suited for each other."
Which statement best exemplifies the premise of Murstein's "role stage" of couple formation?
important in love relationships for both males and females.
Physical attractiveness is
Participants were men and women from several countries around the world.
Which statement regarding the Schmitt (2004) study of romantic attachments is correct?
95%; 80%
According to research cited in your text, approximately _____ of marriages in India are arranged and approximately _____ rated their marriage as "very successful."
abusive
A relationship in which one individual becomes violent or aggressive toward the other is classified as a(n) _____ relationship.
they are powerless to get away from the abuse.
The defining belief among individuals experiencing "battered woman's syndrome" is that
verbal aggression; murder
O'Leary (1993) presents a continuum of aggressive behavior in abusive relationships anchored by _____ on one end and _____ on the other end.
women are not as violent as men in either heterosexual relationships or homosexual relationships
Which statement is true?
Males marry at a later age
Which statement concerning singlehood, marriage, and sex differences in the United States is true?
increasing in African American and Latino American women.
Singlehood is
cohabitation.
Ken and Barbie are sexually active singles who are discussing the idea of moving in together. They are definitely contemplating
convenience or sexual accessibility
Part-time or limited cohabitation is usually undertaken because of
premarital cohabitation
Which might best be characterized as a "trial marriage?
Both lesbian and heterosexual females view money as a way to maintain a sense of independence from their partners.
Which statement concerning homosexual and heterosexual couples in the United States is true?
It has risen by about 4 years
How has the median age of first marriage in the United States changed from 1970 to 2006?
Lucy, who is 17
Each of these women has just married for the first time. Who is most likely to get divorced?
homogamy
When discussing their marriage, Meg and Ryan agree that what appears to keep them together and happy is the fact that they share many of the same values. This exemplifies _____, which is a good predictor of marital success.
exchange theory
Katie and Rob are seeing a marriage counselor, Dr. McMurray, to ask her advice about how to save their relationship. Dr. McMurray tells them that the reason they are having trouble is because "neither of you perceive that you are getting as much out of the relationship as you are putting into it." This statement indicates that Dr. McMurray is a proponent of
high to low to high
Which best describes the typical pattern of marital satisfaction from honeymoon through retirement?
The birth of a child is usually viewed as a positive event even though it is associated with a decrease in marital satisfaction.
Which statement concerning children and marital satisfaction is true?
middle age.
The "empty nest" is most likely to occur for parents in
married singles
Troy and Helen are both 55 and have been married for 20 years. However, they have grown apart, are "emotionally divorced," and essentially live as housemates. Troy and Helen are best classified as
Illness of one spouse
_____ almost always negatively impacts marital satisfaction.
nuclear family.
Wife and husband Marina and Kevin have two children, one boy and one girl. Together, they are a(n
two parents, one child, and one grandfather
Which constitutes an "extended family?
be anxious about being a parent
Ashley is 35 years old and just had her first baby. She is less likely to _____ than younger mothers.
Donnie, a European American male
Who is least likely to do household chores?
family needs are more important than individual needs
Which statement best describes familism?
is highest in African Americans
In the United States, the out-of-wedlock birthrate
feelings of failure and guilt are common in divorced single parents
Which statement about single parents is true
be willing to allow for ambiguity in the attachment relationship between themselves and their foster child.
Due to the nature of their task, foster parents must
early divorce
Expression of negative emotions toward a spouse is positively correlated with
divorce less likely
The purpose of a "covenant marriage" is to make _____ to occur.
both parties feel disappointed or rejected.
In most divorce cases
optimistic.
During middle-age, if a women initiates a divorce she would most likely feel
worse than
The chances for remarrying for a housewife in middle or late life are generally _____ the chances for remarrying when divorcing young
financial
Shiela is a recently divorced woman who has custody of her two young daughters. Shiela's biggest problems are most likely to be
address custody issues involving younger children
The main purpose of the Collaborative Divorce Project is to
three times higher
The divorce rate in second marriages involving stepchildren is about _____ the rate for first marriages
Mary, who is a 60-year-old female
Who is at the greatest risk of currently experiencing osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis
_____ is the leading cause of broken bones in older women.
mass.
Osteoporosis is best thought of as involving a loss of bone
"I see a less mass than normal
As Dr. Benton is looking at an X-ray of bones in your leg, his comment, _____, would indicate that you may have osteoporosis.
D
The rate of osteoporosis is directly affected by the metabolism rate of Vitamin
osteoarthritis
Which is best characterized as a "wear-and-tear" disease?
Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis come and go
Which statement concerning rheumatoid arthritis is true?
"I hope that you have all the children you want."
While at a checkup, 40-year-old Betty listens as her physician, Dr. White, describes Betty's current health. Which of Dr. White's statements would suggest that Betty is experiencing the climacteric?
"It may be possible for you to have more children via in vitro fertilization."
Forty-five-year-old Claire stopped menstruating some time ago. She is disappointed because she really wanted to have more children. What would a competent physician tell her?
Menopause occurs during the climacteric.
How are menopause and the climacteric related?
hot flashes and vaginal dryness
Which are hormonal-related symptoms of menopause?
Japan
The text notes that in _____ "menopausal syndrome" is thought to be the result of women with too much time on their hands
in vitro fertilization.
In 1997, a 63-year-old woman gave birth to a baby that was conceived through
hip fractures
Results from the Women's Health Initiative study begun in 1991 revealed that the risk for _____ decreased in those taking estrogen plus progestin.
Deena, who has no control over her job
Who is likely to experience the most job-related stress?
rate stressful experiences more negatively and to report more stress in family areas
Compared to the average middle-age man, the average middle-age woman tends to
person and environment.
The stress and coping paradigm focuses on the interactive relationship between
2
The risk for how many of the following are increased when an individual is under chronic stress: atherosclerosis, hypertension, osteoporosis, breast cancer?
Type B behavior
If there were a phrase that would describe Stacy, it would be "laid-back." She rarely gets frustrated or angry, could care less about "climbing the corporate ladder," and is satisfied taking "life as it comes." Stacy is best described as exhibiting
psychological factors can be related to physical health
Research on Type A and Type B personalities provides support for the notion that
Sylvester has a better recovery prognosis following a heart attack
Sylvester has a "Type A" behavior pattern and Stallone has a "Type B" behavior pattern. Which statement is true?
60% and 90%
Aerobic exercise is defined as a pulse rate between _____ of a person's maximum rate.
220
A person's maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting their age from
knowing how to balance a checkbook
Which is the best example of a measure of practical intelligence?
problem-focused action
Dharma is becoming more upset with the lack of manners her husband, Greg, displays while eating. One day at lunch she finally has had enough. She first slaps the Jell-O from Greg's hand, then screams, "Will you please stop eating like a pig!" Dharma's response is best classified as
driving to work
Which would best be classified as an instrumental task?
practical intelligence
Macy is using the Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL) test in her research with hospital patients. Apparently, Macy is interested in studying
neurophysiological
Which characteristic best fits with mechanics intelligence?
is more effective at determining correct solutions concerning rock and roll music
Paula is an expert on the history of rock and roll music while Donald is a novice. This means that Paula _____ than Donald
Encapsulation
_____ occurs when the processes of thinking become connected to the products of thinking.
It helps compensate for declining processes of thinking.
How does encapsulation assist older thinkers?
loss of the ability to explain why you came to a correct solution
One negative effect of encapsulation is the
middle age
At which age is the debate of personality stability versus change most heated?
five-factor
Costa and McCrae's model of personality, which includes dimensions like conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience, is commonly referred to as the ____model.
neuroticism
An individual low on the _____ characteristic would likely be described as even-tempered and comfortable
neuroticism
If Barney is accurately described as being very even-tempered and unemotional. He would likely score very low on a test of
"loving the spotlight."
Since she has what Costa and McCrae would classify as a "highly extroverted" personality, you would expect that Samantha would be described by others as
"joy to be around."
Since she has what Costa and McCrae would classify as an "agreeable" personality, you would expect that Marcy would be described by others as a
conscientiousness
Ahmed is in charge of hiring new employees for his company. He wants to hire people who are very organized, very responsible, and will work very hard for the company. In which trait is Ahmed most interested?
Personality traits are fairly stable across adulthood.
Which best describes the findings from most longitudinal studies of personality stability?
personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse remains stable.
Research suggests that during middle age
It was a cross-sectional study.
Which statement is true regarding the Srivastava (2003) study of the Big Five?
generativity versus stagnation
Erik Erikson believes that midlife involves a psychosocial crisis involving characteristics of
3
How many of the following would be ways to demonstrating generativity: parenting, mentoring, volunteering, painting?
contribute to a society's continuation
An individual characterizing what Erikson called "stagnation" is unable to
self-indulgent
Which of Diane's traits would indicate that she is in a state of stagnation?
generative concern.
As a caring uncle, Ben derives a lot of satisfaction when his niece performs well in her basketball games. Ben, however, has no real interest in actually teaching her how to improve her basketball skills. McAdams would cite this as a good example of
Those who experience such a crisis may be suffering from general psychopathology.
Which statement on "midlife crisis" is true?
ego resilience.
The greatest personality resource that enables an individual to avoid a midlife crisis is called
Evelyn, a 45-year-old mothe
Which of these individuals is most likely to be a "kinkeeper?"
gender matters but which provides care varies by culture
How is gender related to caring for an aging parent?
s perceived as infringing on the caregivers other responsibilities.
The two key sources of stress for adults caring for their parents include the child coping with their parent's functional decline and if the care
Cecilia is less likely to be depressed
Darla is a traditional European American caregiver for a parent. Cecilia is a traditional Hispanic American caregiver for a parent. How are the two most likely to differ?
independence and autonomy
Older adults who value _____ are most likely to express a desire pay for caregiving rather than asking a family member for help.
Darin, who says, "I now live via two more generations."
Whose statement best represents the "immortality through clan" dimension of grandparenting?
Latino Americans
Which group is most likely to see a key role of grandparents as actively participating in the child rearing of their grandchildren?
More grandparents now live lives independent from their grandchildren
Which statement concerning how grandparent-grandchild relationships have changed over the past few decades is accurate?
rates of behavioral problems in children raised by grandparents is high
Which statement concerning custodial care of grandchildren by grandparents in true?